УДК 008

НАЗВАНИЯ УКРАШЕНИЙ В ЧЕСТЬ ДЕТЕЙ НА ТУРКМЕНСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Айдогдиева Бахар Ровшеновна
Туркменский государственный университет имени Махтумкули
студент

Аннотация
Украшения для детей простые, необычные, самобытные и универсальные, и в основном они украшают детское тело, спину, грудь, плечи, шею, ножки, ручки.

NAMES OF JEWELRIES TO NAME CHILDREN IN TURKMEN

Aydogdiyeva Bahar Rovshenovna
Turkmen State University named after Magtymguly
student

Abstract
The jewelries for children are simple, unusual, distinctive and versatile, and they mainly decorate the children’s body, back, chest, shoulders, neck, legs, arms.

Keywords: art, jewellery, jewelry


Рубрика: 24.00.00 КУЛЬТУРОЛОГИЯ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Айдогдиева Б.Р. Names of jewelries to name children in Turkmen // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2022. № 10 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/issues/2022/10/99075 (дата обращения: 26.01.2023).

When jewelers made such jewelries, they necessarily took into account the ages of the children because the wore jewelries such as yylanbashy, dogachyr, tumarcha, gochboynuz, kushdirnak, and etc. If they wore jewelries such as arrows, bows, bracelets, buttons, stones on their necks, shoulders, chests, and legs, but in the past in some tribes young boys also wore “Gupba” on their heads. The above – mentioned jewelries of child are very different from each other in terms of their names, designs, and creating.

Mothers took care of their children to put on jewelries like yylanbashy, doga, amulet them to protect from evil spirits, they were not only used as decorative items. Yylanbashy is one of the most famous amulet between Turkmen tribes. A fishnet sewn to the head of a child or top or tahya is called “Yylanbashy”. Jeweller Gylychmyrat Atayev tells that between the country people call  it like “Dadran”. The example from the  “Georogly” poem also proves it: “If they come across their merchants (who sells the minor things like amulet, tumarcha), they give them amulet, dadran, thimble, eyes of broken needle, beads and etc. In ancient times, our grandmothers put silver on the outside of the earring on their children’s head, and they also, attached double of silver “Sitara” to the two sides of the traditional earring.” There is saying like about sewing fishnets to the head of children, and it is called “Yylanbashy”. Our ancestors believed in those unknown forces that bring badness and illness to children are in the form of poisonous creatures, and if they see their image, the will be repulsed.

Bazbent, bazbent – a double round of silver ornament worn on the shoulders, back or chest of child’s vest, jacket or coat. It is on shape of a shield, red – tinted, double – layered jewel with a large central ruby,  decorated with a “crack”(or unbreakable) pattern around the brow. It has a zipper to fasten the jacket on two or four places.  The motives are patterns mainly from the plant world, such as  “Islime”(like unbreakable), “Wheat”, “Rod” and “Snake”.

Bow and arrow – it is in shaped of arrow decoration attached to the back of the jacket, the hat of boys between the ages of two to three and six to eight years. It is made of silver, its face is flushed with golden, and it has eyebrow like “Hakik”.It is decorated with patterns such as “Epenek”, “Nerrek”, “Chybyk”, “Bugday”(“Wheat”), “Kerkere”, “Aygyzyl”. At the bottom, there are pendants, buttons, and two or three zippers at the top to fasten the jacket. This jewelry is named after its shape resembling an arrowhead. In ancient times, in some sonless families, those families who wished that their next child would be a boy, so put arrows and bows on the backs of girl’s dresses or clothes.

Burma (like pinching) – it is made of silver wire, so it is ornament braided button. It is believed to protect from the eye and tongue, and it is attached to the ankle or leg of a young child with a ring of sponge as a toy. It has one, three, five…buttons. There are buttons in three or four places for ringing bell tone when the baby moves his hands or his legs. The mothers wore this jewelry on their children mainly as a toy and for listen to the sound of the child playing nearby.

Ayakbukavy – is one of the jewelry put on foot of the children. It was made of silver and it is on the shape if winding. It has button or pendant on some shapes. Ayakbukavy is mainly put on children until they three or five years old. In the past, this jewelry was widely used at the beginning of the XX century, between Turkmen tribes. The jewelers told that: “Each of our mothers, who busy with housework and handcrafts, were able to recognize their child by the sound of pendat of ayakbukav”.

Doga (prayer) – is type of jewelry that is sewn on children’s tahya. It is made of silver, and it is on the form of a triangle case. It has various patterned. The top of tahya is often sewn with a single silver jewel on each side or a pair of buttons on both sides. Among the people, this jewelry of child is known by the names of doga and dogachyr. Because of its triangular shape, this ornament is called doga or dogachyr, is regarded as a sacred ornament that protects the eye and soul from evil.

Dogachyr (Doga) (prayer) – it has rectangular shape at the bottom. This part is called the doga of tumarcha. It was made of silver, was decorated with patterns, so it has the tiniest pendants. It was convenient to open and close like case or box and inside it was placed a portion of the Qur“an, prayers written by mullahs, salt, coal and etc., what attached to the children. They firmly believed in that, this doga (prayer) protects children from unseen and unknown forces.

Kozmonjuk (like pearl) – is sewn on the top of the tahya, it has black and white dots. According to local superstitions, the pearl is usually worn in a single shape (one, three, five…), because when it is done so, it protects it owner from evil forces. It looks like eye, for that reason its name has remained like kozmonjuk (pearl).

The Northern Turkmens wore an octagonal, flat, stanza with pendats called jewelry. In Bairamaly regions, it was a case – shaped, an octagonal – shaped, it was called “Bentli”. People put in it a portion of the Qur“an or prayer written by the mullahs.

Tumarcha – is a decorative jewelry sewn to the top of child’s tahya. It is made of silver, its inside is empty, at the bottom it has button or without button. According to source, a prayer is placed inside the tumarcha. In ancient times, parts of verses from the Qur“an or prayers written by mullahs for protection were placed in hung around neck. In recent times, among the people, there are information like the brides or girls put their needles and threads in the tumarcha.

Among the Turkmen tribes, one of the widespread jewelry is the Kushdirnak. It is made of silver too, gilt on surface, decorated with an “unbreakable” pattern, and its top is in the form of a branch that bends in all directions. It has eyebrow like “Hakik” in its middle, and a lock is made to fasten to the other three sides. Turkmen used to attach kushdirnak to the top of child’s tahya or sopbash as the protection. G. P. Vasilieva remarks it like  kushdirnak sewn on the forehead of child’s hat, it has unique square – shaped, its top is in the form of a horn that bends in all directions, it has the eyebrow like “Hakik” in its middle, and a lock is made to fasten on the other three sides.These jewelries look like jewelry “Kochboynuz”. It is a square case – shaped, gilt on surface, it is in the form of a horn that bends in both of directions, at the bottom it has buttons, double sided buckle fastening. It looks like antler of ram, therefore it is called “Kochboynuz”.

Gupba (like dome) – a dome – shaped ornament worn to the heads of young girls. In the past, Turkmens used to put it not only on the heads of girls, also put it on the head of young boys aged six or seven years old. It was made of silver, decorated with patterns from the flora or fauna, gilt, placed with eyebrow like “Hakyk”.

Dagdan – a sacred jewelry, gilt to its surface. Children put on it tiny pieces on their necks. The top of dagdan is a shaped like a “horn”, “owl”,  various striped patterns are made on the surface.

Sitara – is one of the most popular baby jewelry in the past. It is a silver jewelry with points patterned face. It was sewn in rows or triangles around the collar of the childs’s shirt, the collar of named “Eziaka” shirt. It was customary among the Turkmen to wear it together with jewelry such as bazbent, kozmonjuk (pearl), bow, arrow, doga (prayer), dagdan.

Button – the name of silver ring that connected two silver buttons attached to the collar of child’s coat. (regardless of whether it’s a boy or a girl). Among the people, in order to prevent the collar of outer garment from being open , the silver pendant attached to the front of the collar on both sides was called a button or “sadap”(it is called like that in some Turkmen tribes).


References
  1. Annanepesov M. Turkmen economy in the XVII – XIX centuries. –A., Science, 1972.
  2. Borozna N. G. Some materials about amulets – ornaments of the population of Central Asia., -M., Science, 1975.
  3. Vasilieva G. P. The magical functions of children’s jewelry among Turkmens. Ancient rides of belief and cults of the people of Central Asia – M.: Science, 1986.188.p.
  4. Vasilieva G. P. Head ornaments of Turkmen women of the XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries. – In the book: Costumes of the people of Central Asia. –M.: Science, 1979.


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