УДК 65.01

РАЗРАБОТКА ПРОГРАММЫ АДАПТАЦИИ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯ ТРАНСПОРТНОГО МАШИНОСТРОЕНИЯ К ШЕСТОМУ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКОМУ УКЛАДУ

Глущенко Валерий Владимирович
Московский политехнический университет
д.т.н., доцент, профессор центра проектной деятельности

Ключевые слова: транспорт


DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM FOR THE ADAPTATION OF THE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE TO THE SIXTH TECHNOLOGICAL ORDER

Glushchenko Valery Vladimirovich
Moscow Polytechnic University
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Moscow, Russia, Professor of the Project Activity Center

Abstract
The subject of the article is development of the program of adaptation of the enterprise transport engineering to the sixth technological mode, the object of this article is to transport engineering enterprise, the aim of this work is to increase the effectiveness of adaptation programmes of transport engineering enterprises to the sixth technological mode, to achieve this goal, the following tasks: describes the essence of the sixth technological structure; the structure of the program of adaptation of the enterprise to the sixth technological mode; the development of the matrix elements and properties of technological modes, the table is formed enterprise adaptation of transport engineering in the sixth technological way, the scientific novelty of the work associated with the development of the program, part tables, properties, technological structures with the development of the sixth technological structure in mechanical engineering.

Keywords: adaptation, elements, innovations, mechanical engineering, Methodology, program, properties, representation, table, technological structure


Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Глущенко В.В. Development of a program for the adaptation of the transport engineering enterprise to the sixth technological order // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2021. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/issues/2021/03/94758 (дата обращения: 24.10.2021).

The relevance of this work is related to the need to prepare the adaptation of the transport engineering enterprise to the conditions of the sixth technological order. Such adaptation of enterprises to the sixth technological order is necessary to maintain their competitiveness in the conditions of the new technological order.

The purpose of the work is to increase the effectiveness of programs for the adaptation of transport engineering enterprises to the sixth technological order.

To achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved:

- the essence of the sixth technological order is described;

- the structure of the program of adaptation of the enterprise to the sixth technological order is described;

- development of tables of elements and properties of technological order,

- a table of adaptation of the products of the transport engineering enterprise in the sixth technological order is formed.

The object of the article is a transport engineering enterprise.

The subject of the article is the development of a program for adapting the transport engineering enterprise to the sixth technological order.

Under the program of adaptation of the transport engineering enterprise to the sixth technological order, we will refer to a set of interrelated measures. These measures are aimed at modernizing the products and production capacities of transport engineering enterprises in the sixth technological order.

The structure of the program of adaptation of the transport engineering enterprise to the sixth technological order can include:

1) measures aimed at product modernization;

2) measures aimed at modernizing the production capacities of the transport engineering enterprise;

3) measures to improve the enterprise management system;

4) measures aimed at improving the effectiveness of management systems for the social development of personnel.

In this program, all activities can be divided into long-term and tactical.

At the same time, the modernization of products (and production) is carried out on the basis of technologies of a new technological order.

The development of the program of adaptation of the enterprise to the sixth technological order consists in determining the most important measures. These measures are then clarified when planning the transition of transport engineering enterprises to the sixth technological order. The structure of the programs also includes the establishment of a sequence of specific activities for the implementation of the plans [1, p. 211]. The researchers note that during the development of the technological mode, the production of the new mode increases by 35% in one year [2, p. 3-29].

At the same time, there are no methods that allow you to determine specific areas of product modernization. There is also no methodology for determining the goals of modernization of production during the transition of the enterprise to the sixth technological order.

This confirms the relevance of the topic of this article.

Further analysis of the results of scientific research on the topic of this article shows the following. Because of the large scale of the sixth technological order, it needs to be investigated. It is necessary to create a scenario for the development of the sixth technological order [3, p. 11-15]. It is necessary to develop socio-economic management of the development of the sixth technological order [4, p. 62-64]. It is necessary to recognize the need for a conceptual approach in the study of a new technological order [5, p. 70-75]. For strategic planning of the development of the sixth technological order in the domestic engineering industry, it is necessary:

first, to investigate the conditions for the development of the sixth technological order in the Russian economy [6, p. 37-40];

secondly, to study the opportunities for the development of the Russian economy in this period [7, p. 54-58

The methodological basis for the development of the adaptation of the enterprise to the new technological order is the scientific theory of technological orders [8, p. 60-74]. When forming enterprise development programs, the technological structure should be considered as the basis for the country’s progress [9, p. 93-100].

When forming a program for the development of enterprises, it is necessary to develop the theory of technological structures [ 8, p. 60-74; 10, p.80-93]. The functions, roles, and laws of the scientific theory of technological structures are described in [8, p. 60-74; 10, p. 80-93]. This article develops a methodology for creating programs for the development of enterprises in mechanical engineering. This method relates to the prognostic and methodological functions of the scientific theory of technological structures [8, p. 60-74].

The program of adaptation of transport engineering enterprises to the sixth technological order is created in the following conditions:

1) in the context of a qualitative leap in scientific and technological progress (this limits the possibility of using statistical methods);

2) the program has a complex system character: it includes methods of a number of sciences (engineering, economics, finance, sociology, and others);

3) the program should be formed to the full depth of the duration of the sixth technological order (mode);

4) the program should include risk assessments of the implementation of this program;

5) the program should include measures to reduce the risks of implementing this program;

6) the program should be based on the analysis of the specifics of the sixth technological order;

7) the program should be based on the results of the analysis of the composition of transport engineering products;

8) the program should be based on the results of the analysis of the structure of the means of production of the transport engineering enterprise.

In this article, we will define the concept of “technological order” as a system integration: the technological basis of the enterprise; social and industrial institutions; characteristic business processes; organizational structures of enterprises; concepts of personnel management. The technological order is characteristic of the economy at a certain stage of the historical, technological, social, economic, and cultural development of society.

Under the full theory of technological order, we will understand a new scientific discipline. This science is aimed at developing knowledge of a scientific nature. This is the knowledge that reveals the essence of technological orders in the economy. In addition, this scientific knowledge characterizes the impact of the technological order on the geopolitical, socio-economic situation of the state.

The structure of any technological order can be studied using the functional-decomposition representation of large systems [11, p. 184-186]. To analyze the properties of the technological order in the field of management, this representation of complex systems can also be used. In this approach, you can create six tables.

The first table (the table of elements of the layout) will have the form of a matrix. The rows of this matrix are indicated by the names of all known six technological order. We will add to them two additional (pre-capitalist) technological orders. The columns of this table reflect the parts (elements) of the technological order. As elements of the internal environment of the technological order can be: types of power plants; technologies; methods of organizing production, and more. An example of such a table (Table of elements of the internal environment of the technological structure) is given in Table No. 1.

Table No. 1 Table of elements of the internal environment of technological orders

 

п/п

Elements of the technological order

/Names

Technological order, a period of time

Basic

technological or propulsion system

Key types of new products

in public production

Manufacturing enterprises

“-1″ technological structure;

2000 BC –

9th century AD

Horse (horse-drawn) traction

Agricultural products, transport services

gender

“0″ technological

order;

9th century AD-1770

Windmill (windmill) and water mill

Flour and other processed agricultural products

Family, clan, craftsman

The first technological order;

1770-1830

Textile Machinery

Machine-made fabrics, manufactory products

Manufactories, enterprises

The second technological order;

1830-1880

Steam engine

Metal products as a result of mechanical processing

International monopolies

The third technological order;

1880-1930

Electric motor

Locomotives, airplanes, telephone, telegraph

Multinational corporations

The fourth technological order;

1930-1970

Internal combustion engine

Cars, diesel locomotives, airplanes, washing machines, refrigerators

Multinational corporations

The fifth technological order;

1970-2010

microelectronics

Flexible automated production facilities, automated production facilities,

plastic bank cards

Global corporations, virtual corporations

Sixth technological order;

2010-2040

nanotechnology

3-D printing products, information products, transformation of human thinking (clip thinking)

Clusters, technology platforms, global information systems

Source: developed by the author

 

The world order can be called the external environment of the technological order. The characteristics of the world order can also be presented in the form of a table. The rows of this second table are similar to the rows of the first table (the names of technological structures are determined). At the same time, the columns of the second table should correspond to the characteristics (properties) of the world order – the external environment of technological orders (structures): types of money and features of credit and monetary relations (gold, credit money, electronic money, cryptocurrencies); social formation (community system, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, etc.); types of states and interstate relations, and more.

The table of elements of the external environment of technological structures (the structure of the world order) is reflected in Table No. 2.

 

Table No. 2 Table of elements of the external environment of technological order (structures)

 

п/п

Elements of the technological order

/Names

Technological order

Period of time

existence

The form of money, the international monetary system

Type of State

Public formation

“-1″ technological order (structure)

2000 bc. –

IX century AD

Equivalents – individual products,

Communities, community-generic

Communal-tribal system, slavery

“0″ technological order (structure)

 900 –

 1770

the universal equivalent (gold)

Principalities,

Slavery, feudalism

The first technological order (way of life) 1770-1830

Gold Money

Empires, monarchies

Feudalism, capitalism

The second technological order (way of life) 1830-1880

the Paris Currency system, the gold standard

Empires, monarchies

Feudalism, capitalism

The third technological order (mode) 1880-1930

credit money, three currency blocks

National States, the Republic of

Capitalism, Imperialism

The fourth technological order 1930-1970

the world of the Bretton woods monetary system, gold, cash mottos

States, military-political blocs, bipolar world

Capitalism,

Imperialism

The fifth technological order 1970-2010

Jamaican Monetary System, gold demonetization, electronic Money

States, trade and economic blocs, unipolar world

Capitalism,

Globalization

Sixth technological order 2010-2040

Cryptocurrency international system, virtual, technological money

State economic and trade blocks, the virtual blocks of the States of the multipolar world

Capitalism,

Multipolar globalization, the information society

Source: developed by the author

 

In the third table can be described by studying the properties of technological structures. This table describes the properties of technological structures in the field of products and technologies. An example of such a table (properties of technological structures) is given in Table No. 3.

Table No. 3 Table of properties of technological orders (technical structures) in the field of technologies and products

 

п/п

Properties of the technological order

/Names

Technological order, a period of time

Base

technology, the propulsion system

New types of production

Types of competitive relations, type of market
“-1″ technolic order

2000 bc. –

IX century AD

Horse traction

Horse-drawn transport services

Product-level competition, unsaturated market

«0 ” technological order

IX century-

1770

 

Windmill ( windmill), a water mill

Mechanized flour-milling production based on wind and water energy

Product-level competition, unsaturated market

The first technological order (way of life)

1770-1830

Textile Machinery

Mechanized textile production

Product-level competition, unsaturated market

The second technological order (way of life)

1830-1880

Steam engine

Mechanized mechanical processing, transport services based on a steam engine

Product-level competition, unsaturated market

The third technological order (mode)

1880-1930

Electric motor

Mechanized mechanical processing and transport services based on an electric motor

Product-level competition, unsaturated market (seller’s market)

The fourth technological order

1930-1970

Internal combustion engine

Automated production facilities and transport services based on the internal combustion engine

Product-level competition, saturated market (national buyer’s market)

The fifth technological order,

1970-2010

microelectronics

Automated production of microelectronics

Global product-level competition, saturated market

The sixth technological order (structure),

2010-2040

nanotechnology

Production of materials with specified properties, nanotechnological production, environmentally friendly production

Competition at the level of organizational cultures of enterprises

Source: developed by the author

 

 

When the technological structure changes, not only the production technologies change. In addition to production technologies, the following changes are taking place: production relations (institutions); organizational structures; methods and tools of management of organizations; methods of managing the social development of employees.

Table № 4 can provide the characteristics (properties) corresponding to a specific technological structure in the field of business implementation and management.

Table No. 4 Table of properties of control systems in technological orders

 

п/п

Properties of the technological order

/Names

Technological order

New types of business processes

Types of organizational structures

Management concepts

Types of work, work with personnel

“-1″ technological order (structure)

Promissory note circulation, money

changers

Traditional organizational structures

Centralization, organization, control, labor promotion, management as an art,

unity of command, simple abstract work, human relations

“0″ technological order

Money changers, Bill circulation, monasteries as banks

Traditional organizational structures of manufactories

theory of power, requirements for the manager, study of the impact of automation

Simple abstract work, unity of command, human relations

The first technological order (way of life)

Banks, bank settlements and payment

Traditional organizational structures

Economic theory, theory of finance,

management as an art

the principle of

specialization of industrial workers, simple abstract labor,

The second technological way of life

factoring

Traditional organizational structures

management as an art, theory of public services,

Simple abstract work, an analysis of the motivation of the workers

The third technological mode

factoring

Functional organizational structures

Scientific management, methods of statistics in management, personnel work

Simple abstract work, the concept of personnel work

The fourth technological order

leasing

Product organizational structures

Operational research, system analysis, marketing, personnel management, personnel motivation systems

card of competences and qualifications, the concept of personnel management

The fifth technological order

Franchising, forfeiting,

online trading

matrix organizational structures, clusters, and technology platforms

Post-industrial marketing, participatory management, human resource management

Simple abstract, labor, special skills, human resource management concept

Sixth technological order

Online settlements, online trading, cross-border settlements in cryptocurrencies

Organizational architecture, design, organizational culture

Theory of technological structures, neuromanagement,

neuromarketing, management of social development of personnel

Simple abstract, labor, special skills, management concept of social development of personnel

Source: developed by the author

The main directions of development of the sixth technological order can be recognized as the development of such technologies: nanotechnologies; digitalization technologies; artificial intelligence technologies; information technologies; intelligent technologies; neurotechnologies; environmentally friendly (“green”) technologies and others.

The economic efficiency of the introduction of technologies of the new technological order (way) depends on the number of integration of these technologies with the products of the old orders. We introduce the concept of “multiplication” of the application of new technologies in the products of previous technological orders. “Multiplication” is the number of integrations of new technologies with old products. The higher the level of “multiplication”, the greater the economic efficiency of new technologies.

Table 5 shows the main objectives of the modernization of the main products of the previous modes due to the technologies of the new technological order.

 

Table 5. Objectives of animation of the key technologies of the sixth technological order with the technologies of the previous technological order.

 

п/п

Technologies of the sixth technological order

/Names, time period

Technological order

Nanotechnology

of nanotehnologii

Information technology

Technologies of digitalization

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

“-1″ technological order (mode),

2000 BC-

9th century AD, Horse-

drawn traction

Increasing the strength of wagon materials, increasing the quality of paint

determination of the psychophysical state of the driver, draught animal

Informing the rider about the route, the condition of the draft animal

Fixing the conditions of the draft animal and the driver

“0″ technological order (mode),

9th century-

1770,

Windmill (windmill), a water mill

Improving the strength of windmill and mill materials, increasing the quality of paint

fixing the psychophysical state of mill workers

Informing employees of the mills on the modes of their work, loads, etc.

storage of information about the operating modes of windmills, windmills, etc.

The first technological order (way of life),

 

1770-1830,

Textile Machinery

Improving the strength of fabrics and textile machinery materials, increasing the quality of paint

determination of the psychophysical state of workers, fixing the reactions of buyers to various fabrics

Optimization of the operating mode of the loom, selection of patterns and colors, informing workers about shift tasks

Recording the operating modes of the loom, recording the consumption of fabric, paints, and electricity in production

The second technological way of life;

 

1830-1880,

Steam engine

Improving the strength of the materials of the steam engine parts, increasing the quality of paint

Registration of the psychophysical state of the operator, registration of the reactions of others to various modes of operation of the engine

Optimization of the steam engine operation process, informing the operator about the safety of the operating mode, resource consumption

Digital recording of steam engine operating modes and operator control actions

The Third technological order,

1880-1930,

Electric motor

Increase the strength of the materials of electric motor parts, improve the quality of paint

fixing the psychophysical state of the employee, fixing the reactions of others to different modes of work

Optimization of the operating modes of the electric motor, informing the operator about the safety of the operating mode, resource consumption

Digital recording of electric motor operation parameters, recording of operator control commands

Fourth technological order, 1930-1970

,

Internal combustion engine

increase in the strength of materials of internal combustion engine parts, increase in the quality of paint

registration of the psychophysical state of the engine operator, registration of the reactions of others to various modes of operation

Optimization of the internal combustion engine operating modes, informing the operator about the safety of the operating mode, resource consumption

Digital recording of internal combustion engine operating modes and operator control actions

The fifth technological order,

1970-2010,

microelectronics

The creation of microelectronics with desired qualities

Registration of the psychophysical state of the production operator, the reactions of others to the various modes of operation of the plant

Optimization of the production process of trace elements, informing the operator about the safety of the operating mode, resource consumption

The digital recording of the modes of production of trace elements, control commands and effects operator

Source: developed by the author

 

The data in Table 5 allow us to determine the main directions of “multiplication” of technologies of the sixth technological order with the products of previous technological orders. This makes it possible to increase the level of coordination of scientific research and development work.

Table 6 shows an example of the analysis of the integration of technologies of the new technological order in the production of products of previous orders.

Table No. 6 Table of multiplication of technologies in the production of mechanical engineering products (tractor) during the transition to the sixth technological order

 

п/п

Technologies of the sixth mode

/Names

of tractor subsystems

nanotechnology

Neurotechnology

Technologies of digitalization

Information technology

Tractor body Improving the strength of tractor body parts, improving the wear resistance of paint

Registration of human reactions and identification of the most dangerous parts of the body

Recording of body vibrations, noise optimization of working and resting modes of tractor drivers, taking into account loads

Informing others about the approach of the tractor body during maneuvers

Tractor engine Increasing the strength and wear resistance of tractor engine parts, its anti-corrosion coating

Registration of psychophysical reactions of the tractor driver and others to the modes of vibration and noise at work

Recording and recording of operating modes, vibrations and noise of the tractor engine optimization of working and resting modes of tractor drivers

Determination of critical operating modes of the engine, informing the tractor driver about it

The chassis of the tractor Increment of strength and wear resistance of tractor undercarriage parts

Fixing the reactions of the tractor driver’s body to noise during the movement of the tractor

Recording of wheel speed readings

Informing about tire defects, wheel damage

Tractor cab Improving the strength and wear resistance of tractor cab materials

Registration of temperature conditions in the cab and their influence on the driver’s condition

Recording of the characteristics of the temperature conditions in the cab and the readings of the tractor driver’s condition

Informing the driver about non-calculated temperature conditions in the cab

Subsystem for washing the windows of the tractor cab Increase in wear resistance and strength of parts

Recording the impact of glass contamination on quality and safety

Registration of subsystem performance indicators, optimization of fluid flow

Voice and other information about the need to clean the windows, tips

Tractor fuel system Ensuring the growth of the specific characteristics of the fuel, increasing the wear resistance, strength of the fuel system parts

Warning of illogical or dangerous behavior of the tractor driver in emergency situations

Registration of tractor fuel system performance characteristics

Voice notification and indication of emergency situations in the tractor fuel system

Source: developed by the author

The modernization program of a machine-building enterprise may include the development of all types of sixth-order technologies. Clusters or technology platforms can be created for the development of such technologies. Private development programs may include the development of a particular type of technology for the entire period of the sixth technological order.

At the same time, each of the types of enterprise adaptation programs can include two sections. The first section of the program may consist of measures aimed at adapting mechanical engineering (or a particular enterprise) to changing external conditions. And the second section of the program can form measures that are aimed at coordinating the internal activities of enterprises. When developing such programs, the results of work on the development of a neurotechnological platform can be useful [12, p. 44-63].

The development of enterprise modernization programs can be based on SWOT analysis. Such an analysis includes a joint analysis of: opportunities and threats of the external environment; analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the enterprise [13, p. 32-43].

The principles of developing enterprise development programs can be called: the use of market opportunities through the use of new technologies; minimizing threats to the external environment based on new technologies; relying on the strengths of the company in the development of new technologies; eliminating the weaknesses of the company in the development of new technologies of the sixth technological order.

The article develops a methodology for forming a program for adapting a machine-building enterprise to the sixth technological order. The paper examines the essence of the internal and external environment of the sixth technological order. To analyze the content of the technological structure, it is proposed to use a functional-decomposition representation of the technological order. The following tables are developed in the article: “style-elements”;” style-properties”;” style-new technologies”, “product subsystems-new technologies”. The article proposes the principles of developing programs for adapting transport engineering enterprises to the sixth technological order.


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