УДК 37


Қараманова Назгүл Таңатқызы
Университет Международного Бизнеса

В этой статье дается описание методам обучения иностранных языков. Определяются основные компоненты и цели подходов обучения.


Karamanova Nazgul Tanatkyzy
University of International Business
Master's Degree student, Second year of study

Nowadays plenty of techniques are used by teachers in their practice. Many disputes still remain regarding their utility. To provide a deeper understanding and implementation in future teaching practice, this paper attempts to examine the efficacy and weakness of some of the most influential teaching techniques and methods.

Keywords: components, language teaching, method


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Қараманова Н.Т. Methods of second language teaching // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2021. № 1 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/issues/2021/01/94359 (дата обращения: 01.02.2023).


There is a long, interesting but somewhat tortuous tradition of language education, in which a discussion on teaching methods has grown over the last hundred years in particular. A variety of distinct teaching methods and methodologies have been developed and proven in the history of language education, with some becoming more common and successful than others. Methods arising partly from social, economic, political, or educational conditions, partly from theoretical consideration, partly from realistic experience, imagination, and inventiveness are part of language teaching theories. They also reflect a mixture of principles in teaching a second language.

Theoretical aspects to the learning of second language

There are four aspects of learning language among modern methods and approaches:

  1. Sociolinguistic

This component is characterized by the linguistic characteristics of social strata, representatives of different generations, genders, social groups, dialects (background knowledge, realities, subject knowledge).

  1. Cultural component

This component has a socio-cultural, historical, cultural, ethnocultural background, that is, knowledge of the traditions and customs of the people of the target language.

  1. Linguistic and cultural

This component includes lexical units with socio-cultural semantics and the ability to use them in situations of intercultural communication (for example, greeting, address, farewell in oral and written speech).

  1. Socio-psychological

The component under consideration is characterized by the possession of culturally determined scenarios, nationally specific models of behavior using the communicative technique adopted in this culture.

 An analysis of teaching methods and approaches

Grammar-translation method

One of the most ancient ways of teaching English, which has not improved much since its introduction, is the Grammar-translation method. This method is preferred for demonstrating simple grammar to beginners and figuring out with them the foundations of their vocabulary. In addition, it is acceptable when dealing with students who are increasingly necessary in studying a foreign language to rely on their native language. So the Grammar-translation method will become a foundation on which you will later build the communication skills of a pupil. The downside to this method is that, within the context of the language being learned, it limits thinking; as a result, students begin to think in short sentences.

 Audio-Lingual method

The Audio-Lingual approach promotes before speaking and listening the preparation of reading and interacting. It uses dialogue as the dominant mode of language introduction and exercises as the core teaching techniques. The mother language is forbidden in the classroom. The overall aim of the Audio-Lingual approach is to trigger the target language communicatively. This approach offers more practice, training, learn and remember words, and encourages students to study directly without a native language teacher in the implementation of the learning process.

Direct method

The Direct Method is also referred to as the most common Natural Method, that allows students to interact and offers students the opportunity to talk with others or exchange knowledge of a sequence of sounds or written symbols in a foreign language. This daily conversation approach is also focused on the answer question session, which relies on the language of guidance. The basic objective of this method concerns the meaning of words, movements of speech and accomplishment of language that specifically connect something to the vision in the mind of the learners.


New methods have been applied to some of the various approaches which have sought to deal with certain language learning problems. They, moreover, stemmed from diverse historical backgrounds, emphasized different social and educational needs and took various theoretical factors into account. Therefore, in educational practices, teachers should take these questions into account in order to apply these approaches effectively: who the learners are, what their present level of language proficiency is, what kind of communicative requirements they have, and the conditions in which they will use English in the future, and so on. No particular process, in a term, could guarantee good outcomes.

  1. Hymes, Dell H. (1966). “Two types of linguistic relativity”. In Bright, W. Sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton. pp. 114–158.
  2. Hymes, Dell H. (1972). “On communicative competence”. In Pride, J.B.; Holmes, J. Sociolinguistics: selected readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 269–293.
  3. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ /e-resourse/
  4. https://infourok.ru/statya-suschnost-ponyatiya-uchebnopoznavatelnaya-kompetenciya-kak-komponenta-inoyazichnoy-kommunikativnoy-kompetencii-mladshih-s-1011994.html /e-resourse/
  5. Kulgildinova T.A., Zhumabekova G.B., Golovchun A.A., Eginisova A. Theory and practice professional competence formation of learners. Collective monograph. – „East West“ Association for Advances Studies and Higher Education. – Vienna, 2016, c. 120
  6. Kunanbayeva S.S.. “The modernization of foreign language education: the linguocultural-communicative approach”. – London: Hertfordshire press, 2013, c. 193
  7. Morgan C., Byram M. Teaching and Learning Language and Culture // Culture in Language Learning. – 1994, c. 56
  8. Oetzel, J. G. (1995). Intercultural small groups: An effective decision-making theory. In Wiseman, R. L (ed.). Intercultural communication theory, c. 247–270
  9. Zegarac, V. (2007). A cognitive pragmatic perspective on communication and culture. Handbook of Intercultural Communication. Handbooks of applied linguistics, c. 31-53
  10. Ларина Т. В. Культура как стилеобразующий фактор // Межкультурная коммуникация и перевод: материалы межвузовской научной конференции. — М.: МОСУ, 2005. — С.47–53. 2. Лебедев О. Е. Компетентностный подход в образовании // Школьные технологии. — 2004. — № 5. — c. 39-56
  11. Р. Х. Шакиров, А.А. Буркитова, О.И. Дудкина. – Б.: Оценивание учебных достижений учащихся. Методическое руководство/Сост. «Билим», 2012.

Количество просмотров публикации: Please wait

Все статьи автора «Қараманова Назгүл Таңатқызы»

© Если вы обнаружили нарушение авторских или смежных прав, пожалуйста, незамедлительно сообщите нам об этом по электронной почте или через форму обратной связи.

Связь с автором (комментарии/рецензии к статье)

Оставить комментарий

Вы должны авторизоваться, чтобы оставить комментарий.

Если Вы еще не зарегистрированы на сайте, то Вам необходимо зарегистрироваться:
  • Регистрация