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ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ МИКРОПРОЦЕССОРНЫХ СИСТЕМ ПРОГРАММНОГО УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ПРИВОДАМИ ЭНЕРГОЁМКОГО ОБОРУДОВАНИЯ СЛОЖНЫХ ОБЪЕКТОВ МАШИНОСТРОЕНИЯ И МЕТАЛЛУРГИИ

Поляков Борис Николаевич
доктор технических наук, профессор bpoliakov@hotmail.com

Аннотация
Предлагается обеспечить надёжность и сохранить на длительный период работоспособное состояние технологических агрегатов и оборудования энергоёмких производств горнодобывающих, металлургических и машиностроительных предприятий за счёт их оснащения самонастраивающимися микропроцессорными унифицированными системами программного управления, при минимальных финансовых затратах. Это позволит также сократить расход электроэнергии, газа и других энергоносителей, водных и технологических ресурсов, снизить уровень аварийных простоев, ремонтные расходы и экологическую напряжённость окружающей среды.

Ключевые слова: еnergy-intensive production


PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF MICROPROCESSOR-BASED SOFTWARE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DRIVES OF ENERGY-INTENSIVE EQUIPMENT OF COMPLEX OBJECTS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND METALLURGY

Poliakov Boris Nikolaevich
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor bpoliakov@hotmail.com

Abstract
It is proposed to ensure the reliability and maintain for a long period of time the working condition of technological units and equipment of power-consuming industries of mining, metallurgical and machine-building enterprises by equipping them with self-adjusting microprocessor-based unified software control systems, at minimal financial costs. This will also reduce the consumption of electricity, gas and other energy carriers, water and technological resources, reduce the level of emergency downtime, repair costs and environmental stress.

Keywords: efficiency, reliability, unified software control systems


Рубрика: 05.00.00 ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Поляков Б.Н. Prospects for the use of microprocessor-based software control systems for drives of energy-intensive equipment of complex objects of mechanical engineering and metallurgy // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2020. № 11 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/issues/2020/11/93946 (дата обращения: 21.10.2021).

To the blessed memory of my MOTHER DEDICATED TO

The mining, metallurgical and machine-building industries form the basis of energy-intensive industries, the current state of which is characterized by the following factors:

1) maintaining high efficiency and priority of energy-intensive industries;

2) a steady decline in the working condition of equipment and an increase in the level of wear of fixed assets up to 80-90%, an increase in emergency situations and repair costs;

3) low level of qualifications and technical culture of service personnel;

4) the outflow of experienced qualified specialists: designers, technologists, researchers, operators, production workers, which leads to the loss of the knowledge base and experience;

5) the difficult ecological state of the water-air environment;

6) a decrease in the volume of working capital and depreciation costs with an increase in operating costs, the lack of the possibility of renewing the equipment park and investments, which makes it unlikely to switch to more modern resource-saving and environmentally friendly technologies.

The “pace” of renovation is currently objectively extremely low and in the coming years it is unlikely that they will increase, therefore it is necessary and possible to ensure the reliability and maintain the operable state of the equipment for a long period, not by funds, but by science-intensive, intellectually rich methods and means of information technologies that do not require serious capital costs.

Thus, all of the above indicators of the state of the economy of the current period, as well as the objective need to maintain technological equipment in working order and a gradual increase in production, require the use of new resource-saving methods with low capital investments, which means modern information technologies and computers, i.e. means of terotechnology [1].

However, modern means of terotechnology – automation, diagnostics and monitoring, i.e. means of organizing a control system for the effective functioning of equipment, ensuring its reliability and long-term (specified) performance on the basis of methods and means of information technology, in comparison with methods and means of CAD at the stages of design and manufacture of equipment, are underdeveloped and not widely used in domestic metallurgy and mechanical engineering … Nevertheless, there are some positive experience and examples of successful and effective application of elements of terotechnology, especially in rolling production [2].

Long-term scientific and industrial experience has shown that in the conditions of a severe economic and financial crisis, it is possible, at minimal financial costs, to create and implement self-organizing and self-adjusting microprocessor-based unified program control systems (USPU) for drives of energy-intensive equipment based on standard and individual automation tools using artificial and hybrid intelligence. It is necessary to equip the main technological units of mining, metallurgical and machine-building enterprises with the USPU system, which will allow keeping the equipment in working condition for a long period; to ensure a reduction in the consumption of electricity, gas and other energy carriers, water and a number of technological resources; to reduce emergency downtime and repair costs, environmental stress of the environment; increase the competitiveness of industries; improve information comfort and other working conditions for service personnel.

Typically, the characteristics and parameters of electric drives of almost any complex, critical technological units and machines are adjusted during adjustment and debugging “on average”, for a certain operating mode and remain more or less unchanged throughout the entire period of operation of the mechanism. At the same time, the parameters and settings of the drives do not take into account the real, rather wide ranges of variation of the “external” technological loading conditions and operating modes (the coefficients of variation of their parameters reach more than 30%), technological processing modes and “internal” characteristics (parameters): equipment wear (appearance clearances and backlashes) and tools, changes in lubrication and cooling conditions, fluctuations in the parameters of elements and nodes of control systems, sensors, instruments, etc., as well as possible differences in the qualifications of operators. In other words, artificially, to the detriment of energy consumption and many other losses, deterministic drive control systems are created, without taking into account real fluctuations and fluctuations of technology and environment parameters, their actual statistical characteristics.

The USPU concept consists in providing manual (with the help of an operator) or automatic adaptation of the drive control system (correction of modes, parameters and settings of an electric or hydraulic motor, systems and their control units) to a wide range of real changes in technological loading conditions and operating modes of a machine or unit.

The concept presupposes the introduction of microprocessor-based means with elements of artificial intelligence, mathematical models of functioning and diagnostics, as well as automation means into a closed loop of the drive control system, thereby ensuring flexibility of control, self-tuning, the possibility of real-time correction and great (software) adaptability external conditions of technological loading and operation.

The USPU has a block-modular, variable structure and is organically integrated into any existing control system for an AC or DC electric drive and a hydraulic drive without stopping the technological equipment, i.e. commissioning is carried out in a minimum time, without reducing productivity and production volume.

The USPU system allows for a differentiated (manual or automatic) control of the mechanism, choosing according to the set program or dependence of the setting (parameters) of the regulation or control systems, thereby providing either adaptability, or tuning, or correction of the system. It depends on changing process conditions (for example, product mix changes), equipment condition and operating conditions. Since all the parameters of the equipment will be “in the hands” of the operator or the software system, this will make it possible to carry out continuous diagnostic control (monitoring) of the entire technological process and the state of the equipment (self-diagnostics of machines), which will make it possible to predict possible failures in real time and prevent emergency situations, disasters, breakdowns, which means saving repair costs. As a result, the stability of production, rationality and optimality of management are achieved with the provision of the required (specified) quality criteria in any conditions.

The introduction of USPU systems at metallurgical plants in Russia and Ukraine and a long period of operation have shown their significant efficiency. For example, the implementation of microprocessor-based software control for the main drives of crimping mills in order to protect against roll slip allowed to increase productivity by 0.7-1.5%, reduce repair costs by 0.2-0.4% and downtime by 0.1- 0.25%, reduce the load on the equipment and increase its durability, improve the working conditions of the operators. The installation of the USPU on the manipulators of a number of crimping mills made it possible not only to stabilize, but also to reduce the load on the equipment, increase its service life by 25-30%, increase its productivity by 2-3% by reducing the duration of emergency downtime, and reduce repair costs by 0.8 -1% [2].

The use of USPU for section shears of a number of rolling mills of Izhstal JSC and Zlatoust Metallurgical Plant, according to the results of mathematical modeling, can reduce the equipment load by 5-8% and reduce electricity costs by 220 thousand kW / h in just one year of operation [2]. There are about a hundred of such equipment at metallurgical plants in Russia.

The development and implementation of a microprocessor-based complex for automatic monitoring and control of residual deformation (elongation) in the hydraulic system of a straightening-stretching machine (PRM) with a force of 15MN at the Verkhnaya Salda Metallurgical Production Association increased the accuracy and quality of processed products, the yield of suitable for profiles and panels by 0.3-0, 4%, reduced rejects, stabilized the technological process and ensured energy savings. The real efficiency of the system has confirmed the feasibility of their use in the design of new PRM with an effort from 10 to 60 MN [3].

The above examples of the successful application of USPD indicate the high efficiency of the proposed development. But the real effect will be immeasurably higher given the fact that such energy-intensive equipment in various industries is many hundreds of units.

In addition, USPU can form the basis for organizing monitoring of unique technological objects and units, such as, for example, hydroelectric power plants, oil refineries, chemical and metallurgical enterprises, etc.

Thus, a small amount of financing, a wide field of implementation, a significant range of consumer properties, a relatively low cost and guaranteed efficiency of USPU justify the feasibility of implementing this technical proposal.

The positive experience of introducing intelligent microprocessor systems into a closed control loop of electric and hydraulic drives of various technological machines and the achieved economic and social efficiency give rise to the formulation (as an experimental stage) of the following scientific and applied problem: to transfer to the computer at least part of the purely mechanical functions of the mechanism in order to simplification of complex kinematic systems and machine designs, increasing their reliability. At the same time, in our opinion, with the help of the USP it is possible to perform the functions of assignment (required) of the laws of change of displacements and trajectories of the executive link, its speed and acceleration, which were previously reproduced by complex power transmissions and lever mechanisms; functions of linear and angular velocities of mating shafts, that is, replacing a mechanical connection with an “electronic shaft”, correcting the static and dynamic characteristics of the mechanism and the time constant (accounting for wear and backlash in the system) in real time; kinematic functions of linkage and cam mechanisms, crank functions, etc.

The introduction of the USPU as an organic element of the drive for performing the kinematic functions of the mechanism will make it possible to dramatically simplify the kinematic diagram, structure and design of the mechanism, to exclude bulky crank and other four-link linkages from the drive (for example, for flying and circular shears, saws, lever and gear drives, implementing complex trajectories and laws of motion in pipe-rolling units, etc.), as well as expensive power gears and thereby significantly reduce metal consumption, i.e., when designing on a large scale, a qualitatively new transition to a gearless (and leverless) drive , which has greater reliability, durability and the highest efficiency, which creates conditions for the production of not traditionally “heavy”, but modern “light” machines.

According to our forecasts, it is the reliable small-sized electronic devices based on microprocessors, containing elements of artificial intelligence and self-diagnostics, created on the basis of CAD information technologies, which will provide in the near future at least partial replacement of heavy-loaded, metal and labor-intensive, large mechanical transmissions, for example, already now microprocessor-based speed variators and power (torque) converters, etc. are possible.

Simplification of the design of machines through the use of USP in the drive structure together with intellectual support will make it possible to make the creation of integrated systems of machines real, that is, their complication – aggregation, with the combination of their technological functions and the formation of complex automated complexes [2].


References
  1. Poliakov B.N., Krepyshev G.B. CAD in metallurgy, mechanical engineering and instrument making. Yekaterinburg: Ural Publishing House. state prof. – ped. un – that, 2000.129s.
  2. Poliakov B.N. Improving the quality of technologies, the bearing capacity of structures, the durability of equipment and the efficiency of automatic systems for rolling mills. SPb .: Renome, 2006, – 528s.
  3. Leshern P.I. Development and research of an automated control system correctly – stretching machine: Dis …. cand .. tech. Sciences Sverdlovsk, 1987. 329s.


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