УДК 539.165; 539.182.2; 531.51/159.922


Левин Борис Михайлович
кандидат физико-математических наук

Электрослабая природа истинно нейтрального -ортопозитрония в присутствии Атома Дальнодействия («условия резонанса») трансформирует двухкомпонентное (дираковское) нейтрино в истинно нейтральное майорановское нейтрино. Этот процесс расширяет Стандартную Модель и, в отличие от безнейтринного двойного -распада, не нарушает закон сохранения электронного лептонного числа. Предложен решающий эксперимент.

Ключевые слова: β+ -decay, β+ -Orhopositronium


Levin Boris Mikhailovich
candidate of physico-mathematical Sciences

The electroweak nature of a true neutral β+ -Orthopositronium with a Long-Range Atom transforms in the “resonance conditions” the two-component Dirac neutrino into true neutral Majorana neutrino. This process expands the Standard Model and, in contrast to the neutrinoless double β -decay, does not violate the law of the electron lepton number conservation. A decisive experiment proposed.

Keywords: Dirac neutrino, Long Range Atom, Majorana neutrino, the law of the electron lepton number conservation, the “reso-nance conditions”, topological quantum transitions


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Левин Б.М. β+ -Orthopositronium in the “resonance conditions” transforms a two-component Neutrino into true neutral Neutrino. Phenomenology // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2018. № 11 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/issues/2018/11/87847 (дата обращения: 19.01.2022).

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 The discovery of the neutrinos mass (Nobel Prize-2015) means the need to expand the Standard Model/SM, because in SM neutrino is a massless particle with spin Ѕ. This requires a careful analysis of the known concepts of neutrinos in their connection with the experiment. The SM adopted the concept of a two-component neutrino with antiparticle (solutions of the relativistic, quantum equation of P. Dirac). In connection with the establishment of the neutrino mass, the concept of E. Majorana (1937), in which the neutrino, as a fermion, is a true neutral particle, is attracting more attention. This would mean expanding the SM
Therefore for experimenters of the non-accelerators physics, the search a neutrinoless double -decays of the nuclei became of particular interest. This means that in the final state of such decays

charged leptons  also carry away the energy of degenerate, true neutral neutrinos:


More than three dozen even-even isotopes are known, for which double -decay is possible (with emission of two electrons and two antineutrinos), and as many even-even isotopes for which double -decay is possible (with emission of two positrons and two neutrinos). The existence in nature of more than dozen Dirac double -decays – from  to  – has already been confirmed by experiment.
There are no generally accepted results for Majorana neutrino double -decays.
Since neutrino energy must be transferred to charged leptons in neutrinoless double -decays, the isotopes with the highest double -decay energy are selected from this array. In these searches, the main problem is the background, so the double -decays are excluded from the search base.
At present a number of facilities for observing neutrinoless double -decays are in operation, being construction and designed.
For a decade at depth of 1,5 km, an “ultra-clean” laboratory was built and put into operation (South Dakota, USA – Majorana Demonstrator/MJD Project [1]. The construction is completed, and the latest MJD results so far demonstrate only success in studying the “background” [2].

In this regard, let us again turn to the hypothesis of “vertical” neutrino oscillations (without changing the flavor) [3-5], in contrast to the “horizontal” neutrino oscillation established by the Nobeliates-2015 with changes in neutrino flavors . This hypothesis was formulated [4] after observing the paradoxical realization of the Mцssbauer effect in “resonance conditions”

 – gaseous neon (8.86% 22Ne).

The interpretation of “vertical” oscillations based on the idea of the metamorphoses of the Dirac neutrino into Majorana neutrino arose after reading of the letter in Progress in Physics [6]. This is possible when a complete degenerate -ortho-parasuperpositronium [7], as a true neutral supersymmetric quantum system, substantively formalizes the status of a physical observer in the presence of Long-Range Atom/LRA (number of nodes/cells ) with LRA Core (), when open for neutrinos a limited macroscopic, two-digit/ 4-volume of space-time “outside” the Light Cone.
The irony of the history of the -orthopositronium anomalies is that the Michigan group of experimenters published fifteen years ago an article [8] in which they disavowed the results of their previous precision measurements (1982-1990) that came into conflict with theory (QED), and thus “closed” the problem for the scientific community.
An alternative to this ambiguous solution is presented in the preprint [9].

The proximity of the values of the nuclear -quant energy

МэВ (Nuclear Data Sheets, 2005, v.106, №1, p.12),

for registering the moment of -decay (the emission of a positron  and neutrino ) in the lifetime method of studying of the -decay positrons annihilation, and of the mass difference between the neutron and proton

 MeV (W.-M.Yao et al., J. Phys. G 2006, v.33, p.1),

in SM it seems random. This fact, with the inclusion of the LRA in the final state of topological quantum transitions, allows us to raise the question on the physical nature of the “resonance conditions”.
Comparison  with  in the “resonance conditions” is assumes a twofold resonance.
Nevertheless, between energy  and  there is a significant difference keV.

The question arises about the width of the prospective twofold resonance. The presence of protons (quasiparticles) in each of the nodes of the spatial lattice of the LRD Coreand the binding 22Ne nuclei of atoms from the gas medium [52018] is the response of a unified field on the topological quantum transition, like a bias current in electrodynamics [9]. The difference is fundamentally, and consists in space-like structure of this response.
When bonding due to the exchange of proton-proton interaction at the  nodes of the space-like lattice of the LRA Core 22Ne nuclei of neon atoms from a gas at laboratory temperature, the energy

 keV (the gas temperature ) (1)

is frozen for a lifetime of -o-Ps.
There is prospect of associating the difference  with the resonance of the response energy, since the neutrino in the final state of the transition

as well as -o-Ps (through a solitary virtual photon) during its time of life also participates in oscillations “inside-outside” of the Light Cone  [10, 11].
In these oscillation the neutrino retains its flavor (positron neutrino), but acquires an effective (topological) mass, as is characteristic of the transformations of the “left-right particles” in topological quantum transitions [12]. Then the excess mass difference can be represented as

 keV (2).

From (1) and (2) we find  keV.
Interestingly, that the effective mass  is close to the mass of a heavy 17 keV neutrino (a brief overview problem in [13]). An experimental study of this issue, initially very encouraging (1985-1991), was interrupted after a series of works with alternative methods and negative results (1991-1993). The dramatic history of the experimental study of the 17 keV neutrino is similar to the history of the problem of orthopositronium [8, 13].
The closeness of the values  and  led to a new proposal of the experiment, which is called upon to confirm (or refute) the alleged physical nature of the “resonance conditions” as a twofold delayed resonance. The point is that in the energy response (2) there is a term depending on the gas temperature. Consequently, the uncertainty of the temperature of the measuring chamber of the order, quite probable under laboratory conditions, can testify to a different degree nearness of temperature of the measuring chamber in the works [14-18] around of a source of positrons in the radius


to the temperature peak of the twofold resonance
It can cause of the uncertainty in the visualization of the shoulder (its “blurring” [19]) and the extremely wide scatter of its quantitative characteristics  ns∙atm. Thus, the expected width of the twofold resonance is  eV.
The statement of a decisive experiment is obvious: it is necessary to compare the lifetime spectra of positron annihilation from 22Na in high-purity neon gas in an enough wide intervals of temperature with accuracy ~ 3°.
The observation by the method  delayed coincidence high intensity of the lifetime spectra of orthopositronium component (I2) and (after its subtraction) more and more precise visualization of a shoulder at removal from “peak” temperature on tails of a temperature range is expected, i.e. normalization by this criterion of the neon position in the set of the inert gases (see Ref. [14]). As the peak of a temperature resonance is approached, decrease Iis supposed (up to 2 times; see [3]) and, accordingly, blurring of a shoulder, as takes place according the works [14-18], in which the temperature of the measuring chamber was not fixed. This effect is most pronounced on a positive branch of a temperature resonance, as with decrease the temperature the role of the van der Waals molecules Ne ∙∙∙ Ne grows, and the mechanism of the shoulder formation varies, because non-elastic scattering of the  increased.
The expected result would mean the existence of an additional mode of -orthopositronium annihilation formed by -decay positrons


where LRA () could claim the role of the ninth massless pseudoGoldstone boson with all the consequences of this restoration of chirality in a limited 4-volume space-time of final state -decay of type:
Physicallynon-conservation of chirality in quantum chromodynamics is manifest in the absence in nature of a ninth light pseudoscalar bosonanalogous to the octet. <…> If the symmetry group were the group  then there have to be a ninth pseudo-Goldstone bosonIts absence is direct experimental proof of the non-conservation of chirality (non-invariance under  in quantum chromodynamics” [20].
The Project of a New (Additional) -Physics “Outside” the Light Cone by including in theory the LRA with the LRA Core as massless and space-like quasiparticles, means the extension of SM.

As R. Feynman remarked long ago (“… following the proposal of Gell-Mann”) “… Yang-Mills theory is clearly not engaged in a massless field that would have to leave the nucleus and be noticeableThereforetheorists have not carefully studied the massless case” [21].
Of course, such an expansion of QCD does not violate the “color” confinement; however, it retains the functional status of a strong (nuclear) interaction, when its carrier is a quasiparticles-proton () at the nodes of the .

  1. Elliott S.R. et al. The MAJORANA Project. arXiv:0807.1741v1 [nucl-ex] 10 Jul 2008
  2. Gilliss T. et al. Recent Results from MAJORANA Demonstrator. arXiv:1804.01582v1 [physics.ins-det] 4 Apr 2018
  3. Levin B.M., Kochenda L.M., Markov A.A., and Shantarovich. Time spectra of annihilation of positrons (22Na) in gaseous neon of various isotopic compositions. Sov. J. Nucl. Phys., v.45(6), p.1119, 1987.
  4. Levin B.M., Sokolov V.I. About physical nature “resonance conditions” in the lifetime annihilation spectra of the positrons (orthopositronium) from -decay 22Na in gaseous neon. Preprint 1795 A.F. Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst. Russian Acad. of Sci., St. Petersburg, 2008. Levin B.M. About extension of the Standard Model of Physics. http://science.snauka.ru/2013/01/3279  APPENDIX. Levin B.M., Sokolov V.I. ABOUT PHYSICAL NATURE “RESONANCE CONDITIONS” IN THE LIFETIME ANNIHILATION SPECTRA OF THE POSITRONS (ORTHOPOSITRONIUM) FROM -DECAY 22Na IN GASEOUS NEON.
  5. Levin B.M. Atom of Long-Range Action Instead of Counter-Productive Tachyon Phenomenology. Decisive Experiment of the New (Additional) Phenomenology Outside of the Light Cone. Progress in Physics, v.13 (1), p.11, 2017; Levin B.M. Half-Century History of the Project of New (Additional) -Physics. Progress in Physics, v.13 (1), p.18, 2017. Levin B.M. On the Supersymmetry Realization of Involving -Orthopositronium. Phenomenology. Progress in Physics, v.14(4), p.230, 2018.
  6. Smarandache F. and Rabounski D. Discovered “Angel Particle”, which is Both Matter and Antimatter, as a New Experimental Proof of Unmatter. LETTERS TO PROGRESS IN PHYSICS. Progress in Physics, v.13 (4), p.209, 2017.
  7. Di Vecchia P. and Schuchhardt V. N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetric positronium. Phys. Lett. v.155B(5,6), p.427, 1985.
  8. Vallery R.S., Zitzewitz P.W., and Gidley D.W. Resolution of the Orthopositronium-Lifetime Puzzle. Phys. Rev. Lett., v.90, p.203402.
  9. Kotov B.A., Levin B.M., Sokolov V.I. Orthopositronium: “On the possible relation of gravity to electricity”. Preprint 1784 A.F. Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst. Russian Acad. of  Sci., St. Petersburg, 2005; arXiv:quant-ph/0604171.
  10. Levin B.M. On the Kinematics of One-Photon Annihilation of Orthopositronium. Phys. At. Nucl., v.58(2), p.332, 1995.
  11. B.M. Levin, Sokolov V.I. On an additional realization of supersymmetry in orthopositronium lifetime anomalies. arXiv:quant-ph/0702063
  12. Zel ‘dovich Ya.B. Gravitation, charges, cosmology, and coherence. Sov. Phys. Usp., v.20(3), p.p.945, 1977.
  13. H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus und A. Staudt. Teilchenphysik ohne Beschleuniger. B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart, 1995.
  14. Osmon P.E. Positron lifetime spectra in noble gases.Phys. Rev., v.B138, p.216, 1965.
  15. Goldanskii & Levin, Inst. of Chem. Phys. Russian Acad. of Sci., Moscow (1967): in Atomic Energy Review. Table of positron annihilation data, ed. by B.G. Hogg and C.M. Laidlaw and V.I. Goldanskii and V.P. Shantarovich, v.6, p.p.154, 171, 183, IAEA, Vienna, 1968.
  16. Canter K.F., Roellig L.O. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon. Phys. Rev., v.A12(2), p.386, 1975.
  17. Coleman P.G., Griffith T.C., Heyland G.R., Killen T.L. Positron lifetime spectra in noble gases. J. Phys., v.B8, p.1734, 1975.
  18. Mao A.C., Paul D.A.L. Positron scattering and annihilation in neon gas. Canad. J. Phys., v.53, p.2406, 1975
  19. Levin B.M.  Orthopositronium: Annihilation of positrons in gaseous neon. arXiv:quant-ph/0303166.
  20. V. Rubakov. Classical Theory of Gauge Fields. Translated by S. Wilson.PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS. PRINCETON AND OXFORD, 2002, p.p. 387-388. Original title: V.A. Rubakov. Klassicheskie Kalibrovochnye Polia., Editorial URSS, 1999
  21. Feynman R. Quantum theory of gravitation. Acta Phys. Pol., v.24(2), p.697, 1963.

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