Ким Александра Владимировна
Карагандинский государственный медицинский университет
студента специальности "Общая медицина"

Статья посвящена изучению физического развития и функционального состояния сердечно-сосудистой системы школьников. Целью исследования является выявление содержания тяжелых металлов в биосубстратах и их влияние на сердечно-сосудистую систему.


Kim Aleksandra Vladimirovna
Karaganda State Medical University
student of the specialty "General medicine"

The article is dedicated to the investigation of physical development and functional state of the cardiovascular system of the pupils. The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the quantity of heavy metals in bio-substrates and its influence upon the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, environmental impact, health of children, heavy metals

Рубрика: 14.00.00 МЕДИЦИНСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Ким А.В. Heavy metals as an indicator of environmental impact on the health of children // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2016. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/issues/2016/05/65997 (дата обращения: 10.04.2024).

In modern conditions of development of society the environment and human health have become one of the most difficult problems, the resolution of which requires the efforts of applications in a variety of directions.

And learning of the accumulation of heavy metals in biological media of human being is currently one of the most important problems of science and it has not only theoretical, but also of great practical importance.

According to the biogeochemical theory of Academician Vernadsky V.I. as a result of biogenic migration of atoms, almost all the elements of the environment to a greater or lesser extent, coming into the internal environment of the human body, thereby determining changes in the chemical composition of the environment.  In this context, content of heavy metals in human biological media are informative indicator for assessing the degree of external biological media contamination. Important is the fact that heavy metals entering the body even in minimal quantities can gradually accumulate, providing its malicious influence. Also important is the fact that heavy metals getting into the body, even in minimal quantities, can gradually accumulate and exert their harmful effects. Studies of recent years established a direct correlation between the growth of population morbidity and anthropogenic changes in habitat. It was found that the chemical composition of human hair is the integral index, and is subject to more rapid change than whole blood, which determines the value of this biological substrate for determination of heavy metals.   The organism of children and adolescents is most sensitive to the adverse effects of the environment. The leading criterion for the health of the growing organism is the physical development and the state of the cardiovascular system, the level of which is closely related to the environmental and socio-economic living conditions.

Formation of health of the child population is influenced by a large number of different nature factors, among which the state of environment plays an important role[4].  The last decades are characterized by a sharp aggravation of the ecological situation for many developed countries, which is particularly expressed in large settlements. Heavy metals, with a broad spectrum of biological activities are among the particularly dangerous for human health of environmental contaminants[1]. Lead is the most well studied, whereas literature data of the other heavy metals are rather limited in this respect. At the same time most of the observations carried out in the industrial regions and mainly relate to the adult population. Children and young people are less studied in this aspect, although children are the “risk group” under the influence of adverse factors of different nature. Health indicators are most commonly being studied for any age group and mainly limited by morbidity and physical development. The most favorable object to monitor is children and adolescents, the most vulnerable cohorts of population.

The largest city of Kazakhstan has once again entered the list of most polluted cities in the world. The city of Almaty is one of the most ecologically disadvantaged cities of the country. Pollution degree of separate districts of Almaty by a number of indicators close to the industrial pollution, and in some cases even surpasses it.

Public health is the subject of many research works about Almaty, however, they are concerned either of the adult population, or certain diseases. The main difference of our work lies in the fact that all previous authors have focused only on traditional pollutants and concerned the heavy metals in the environment by incomplete measure. There is no information on a comprehensive assessment of the health status of adolescents 16-17 years old, the city under the impact of heavy metals – the integrated environmental pollutants There is no consensus on the heavy metal levels in biological substrates, especially in the nails, as well as the earliest and most appropriate responses of the body.  Regional standards such as the health indicators of adolescent physical development and performance of the cardiovascular system are not developed and the forecast for the near and distant future is not carried out. It is known that heavy metals may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases[3]. It is assumed that in all cases related to blood circulation problems, the content of heavy metal in the in the biological substrates should be taken into account[2].

Studies were performed on 32 school children of 16 - 17 years old (10-11 grades) of the school – gymnasium No.4 named after Pushkin A.S. in Almaty.  There are 12 boys and 20 girls of these school children. The criterion for selection was the obligatory period of residence in the given ecological zone of at least 5 years. The study was conducted in 2 classes during two years.

Physical development. The growth and development of children are the main indicators of the state of their health.

The average value of growth (H) of the surveyed girls 16 years old and 17years old (160.4 ± 5,6 cm and 161.5 ± 6.5 cm, respectively) were slightly lower than the control group (163.7 ± 5.3 cm and 165.6 ± 4.5). Indicators of body weight (M)  in the main group were  slightly lower compared to the weight of the control group of girls. The values ​​of the CHC (circumference of the head cells) and HC (head circumference) of the surveyed girls living in ecologically unfavorable regions of Almaty and girls in the control group note the opposite picture. Indicators CHC and HC at surveyed girls were higher compared with the control group (Table 1). Table 2 shows the anthropometric indices in boys. When comparing the anthropometric indicators listed in Table 1 and Table 2 indicated that the main indicators of physical development of both girls and boys living in the green market area changed identically, namely growth and body weight were lower, while CHC and HC were higher than in the control group probably revealed deviations in height and body weight, that is what extent reflects the environmental load of their habitat and the possible health risk. However, indicators of CHC and HC to a certain extent increased, probably due to compensatory mechanisms of adaptation that contributed to the normalization of physical development. Good social and living conditions in which our surveyed school children, their healthy lifestyle is also to some extent influenced by the development of basic anthropometric indices and harmony of physical development. Body mass indexes (BMI) of surveyed students calculated by us support the development of their good physical development. Body mass indexes, characterizing the degree of harmony of the physically developed and build up of both the girls and boys were similar in magnitude to each other and nearer to the standard regulations of the control group  (Table 1, 2).

Table 1. Indicators of physical development of girls





(The control



(The control group)

Body length (cm)





Weight (kg)





Chest (cm)





HC (cm)










Table 2. Indicators of physical development of adolescents

Indicator 16y.o.  




(The control



(The control group)

Body length (cm)





Weight (kg)





The circumference of the head cells (cm)





The circumference of the head  (cm)





Body mass index







Thus, the obtained anthropometric indicators, we can conclude that in spite of some variations in the physical development of high school students who live in ecologically unfavorable area compared to standard regulatory measures as a whole we can speak of a harmonious physical development of surveyed students and their body balance. The living conditions of increased environmental burden of health need careful protection and prevention, especially for children and adolescents, the adaptive mechanisms which are in the development stage and 2nd formation. This preventive maintenance provides for an active lifestyle, as you can come without traffic only to the physical and spiritual disease. Life – is a constant movement. Motor activity is a factor in improving the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of the organism, is the main factor of physical development, it forms volitional qualities. Harmonious physical development is one of the most important indicators of human health.

The content of heavy metals in biological substrates of the school children surveyed.

When taking into account the biological equivalence of heavy metals entering the body in different ways, it becomes obvious that the main danger to the health of children and adolescents is inhalation load. The rest of the possible ways of metals entering the body (food, water, soil, plants) are so insignificant contribution that they can be neglected. Indeed, the retention of heavy metal received into the human body by inhalation is at least 50%, while the water and food -. Only 10% Unfortunately, acceptable and critical levels of heavy metals in the body of people, especially children and adolescents rather fluctuate depending on the area and residence, industrial pollution, etc. It is noted that in areas with a high content of heavy metals, their number in biological substrates children increased by several times compared to the contamination of the environment. Heavy metals have the ability to accumulate in living organisms that poses a risk to human health. Therefore, the most objective method of characterizing the environmental load of metals in the body of a child is the evaluation of their content in the biological substrates. As a biological substrate for studying the accumulation of heavy metals we have selected a sample of hair and nails in subjects’ pupils. Table 3 shows only average Pb and Cd data for boys and girls of 16-17 years old who have been received by us in the hair and nail samples of surveyed students in living near the green market of Almaty.

Table 3. Mean content of heavy metals in hair and nails in the subjects and the respective Biological Allowable Level Limit (mg / kg)

The name of the element

Biological Allowable Level Limit (mg/kg)

min – max







Lead Pb 0.1-5 1.69±0,26 0.98±0.20 1.33±0.19 0.87±0.29
CadmiumCd 0.05-0.25

0.09±0.03 0.29±0.06 0.07±0.02 0.17±0.04

Table 3 shows that the content of lead (Pb)   significantly exceeding a minimum lo limit biologically acceptable level (NOS) in the hair and nail samples from all subjects pupils, while the young men lead kummulyatsiya compared with girls was more pronounced. The content of cadmium (Cd) in biological substrates students also exceeds a minimum limit NOS, however, marked a significant increase of the toxicant in nail samples compared to the hair. Significant excess of minimum permissible levels of toxic metals indicates a possible risk to the health of the school children surveyed, and mostly it may reflect on the state of their cardiovascular system.

The functional state of the cardiovascular system

Table 4. Indicators of the cardiovascular system

Indicator Adolescents




The control


(mean value)

Heart rate (beats/min) 82.5±6.50 68.5±5.50 73±0.4
Systolic blood pressure (mm of mercury) 130.0±8.00 111.5±12.5 106.2±9.5
Diastolic blood pressure (mm of mercury) 65.5±2.5 63.5±5.5 62.8±7.1
Mean arterial pressure (mm of mercury) 87.5±5.9 79.5±7.5 77.2±6.9
Timed inspiratory capacity

(delay of breathing in sec)

45.0±20.0 55.0±15.0 50±10 and more 60
Timed expiratory capacity

(delay of breathing in sec)

30,0±5,0 22,0±2,0 40±10 and more 50

In our study we note significant accelerated blood pressure in boys, and mostly SBP was increased by an average of 18.5% compared with the control group. The young men can be seen increasing DBP, MAP. All this indicates an increase in vascular tone and the predominance of sympathetic regulation of cardiac activity in schoolchildren 16-17 y.o. male living in environmentally disadvantaged areas. This is confirmed by the testimony of the pulse, so that heart rate, heart rate in subjects exceeded the regulatory control group   11%. The girls, readings of blood pressure as compared to the control group varied slightly, the heart rate slightly slows. Samples of Stange and Genchi allow us to determine the state of pulmonary respiration in the subjects on the breath-hold on an inhalation in s (Stange) and exhalation by Genchi. The young men identified deviations from the rules on both samples, indicating that they have the tension of adaptive mechanisms in respiratory System Works. The girls identified deviations from the norm for a sample Genchi. Thus, according to indications of the cardiovascular system, shown in Table 4, it can be assumed that the test students 16 17 years, in the bioassays of hair and nails which revealed excess minimum acceptable amounts of heavy metals in several times, there is a voltage adaptation reactions of the organism, requiring a change of the heart rate, and circulation in the lungs.

Integral body rheography method (IBRM) features

On the basis of the method of IBRM on large statistical material standards set main hemodynamic parameters of healthy people, also developed guidelines stress reactions in healthy individuals.

Standards of central hemodynamics, designed for high school students (mean value) by integral rheography are shown in

Table 5.Central hemodynamics by senior IBRM

Indicator Adolescents of


Girls of 16-17 y.o. The control group (mean value)
Intoxication level (ml) 84.5±3.0 71.0±3.5 59±3.1
Cardiac output of blood circulation  (ml/min) 11.7±3.3 6.5±1.5 4.2±0.38
Cardiac index ml/(min*m2) 5.8±0.9 3.1±1.0 2.72±0.92


Stroke volume index  ml/m2 80.5±10.5 49.7±8 37.8±3.0
Aggregated Tonicity Index provisional unit 75.0±4.0 70±2 75±2
Reserve ratio (%) 110.0±10.0 100±4 100±1.0

Rheography method is noninvasive; it is absolutely safe and very informative method for the study of cardiovascular conditions and early diagnosis of these diseases. Comparison of the results obtained from groups of people residing in any particular location, in comparison with the degree of environmental pollution, for example, may to assess the effect of this pollution on the health status of the objects. In our study, the results obtained by rheogram recording the subjects are shown in Table 5 and record the most rheogram for visibility in Fig. 1.

Analysis of central hemodynamics in the surveyed high school students like the boys and girls identified excess variables of intoxication level, cardiac output of blood circulation, cardiac index, and stroke volume index   compared with those of the control group, with a significant increase are observed in young men. Indicators of CIT (coefficient integrated tonicity) and Reserve ratio (coefficient reserve) are close to the normative values. We observed significant differences in the activity of the cardiovascular system at the students surveyed by regulatory indicators among boys at   more   extent fully confirm

the presence of these teenagers tension in the cardio-respiratory system, which can be regarded as a serious risk to their health on the one hand and at the same time, as a manifestation of ecological adaptation to the increased content of heavy metals in the environment.


Patient Name: Skomorohov Maxim

Year of birth: 1997, Sex: M

Research: Integral body rheography method (IBRM)

Date: 19/11/2014, Time: 16:16:26.

Rest 16:22:15

- At the heart rate according to Stroke volume index performance is significantly increased (29.6%)

- The state of the circulation by cardiac index is significantly increased (30.7%)

- The state of the circulation in the reserve ratio is significantly increased (32.8%)

- Vascular tone by CIT is moderately elevated (7.9%)

Based on these data, we can assume that if the surveyed students who live in ecologically unfavorable regions will not take preventive measures to stabilize Show firs central hemodynamics, the future can be predicted failure of physiological adaptation mechanisms and the emergence of premorbid and whether even pathological phenomena in the form of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

The person can make to bring order in their body and maintain Health and Ecology. Guarantee of the survival of each of us! Late merely “think” about what kind of environment we leave an inheritance to their children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Therefore, each of us must now do everything possible to stop the insane destruction of our common home: this is still a wonderful palace - you plan the Earth. After all, together we are force!

  1. Abdulrahman F.I., Akan J.C., Levels of Heavy Metal in Human hair and Nail Samples from  Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria// World Environment,2012; 2(4):81-89
  2. Alibaeva B.N., Omarova A.S., Condition of cardiovascular system as the problem of adaptation //Збирник наукових праць, Киев,2014, с.17-20
  3. Houston M.C. the role of mercury and cadmium heavy metals in vascular disease, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infraction. //Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Mar-Apr; 13(2):S123-33
  4. Uvazhanova A.S.  Higienic estimation of influence of heavy metals on the condition of children`s health //Автореф. дисс. Канд.Мед.наук., г. Алматы, 1999, с.33

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