THE USE OF STYLISTIC DEVICES IN MAGTYMGULY’S POEMS

Kayumova Akgul1, Annamyradova Jennet2
1Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Candidate of Philological sciences, Lecturer in the Department of Turkmen literature
2Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Lecturer in the Department of Turkmen literature

Abstract
This article explores the skillful use of various stylistic devices in the poems of Magtymguly Pyragy, a renowned Turkmen poet. Analyzing the poet's profound and emotional works presents complexities due to their embedded philosophical meaning and symbolic nature. This article delves into specific stylistic elements used by Pyragy, including metaphors, tautology, synecdoche, allegory, hyperbole, litotes, and others.

Keywords: Magtymguly, poetry, stylistic analysis, stylistic devices


Category: 10.00.00 Philology

Article reference:
Kayumova A., Annamyradova J. The use of stylistic devices in Magtymguly's poems // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2024. № 2 [Electronic journal]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/en/issues/2024/02/101595

View this article in Russian

Just as Magtymguly’s poetical world gives different colours to the different grasses and flowers that grow in our desert in the spring months, and reminds the delicate pattern of a similar Turkmen carpet, as those flowers decorate our desert in different colours, the poet’s poems also decorate the reader’s mind with the wealth of words without using any colour. Also, the stylistic devices used in Pyragy’s poems, with their elegance, originality and appropriate use, leave an unforgettable impression on every reader and bring the events described to life in the mind of every person. Magtymguly, the beloved poet of the Turkmen people, a great thinker, was a leading, scientific man of his time, and left us his many priceless works.

A significant part of Magtymguly’s multifaceted rich poetry belongs to women and girls. The poet’s works on this topic can be divided into two groups:

  • works on women in general;
  • works related with Mengli.

In those works, the importance of woman eye becomes more effective through the various stylistic devices used by the thinker.

It is not an easy task to analyze each of the stylistic devices used in Wise Pyragy’s poems and to fully reveal their meaning. Because they contain a deep philosophical meaning, pure feelings, desires and dreams, which flow from the soul and soul of the poet.

Within the framework of our article, we analyze stylistic devices such as metaphor, tautology, synecdoche, allegory, hyperbola, litotes, homonym, antonyms, synonyms, epiphora, antithesis, anaphora, ellipsis, parallelism skillfully used in the poems.

Individual metaphors. These types of metaphors are metaphors that are not yet fully integrated into the common language, and are related to the language characteristics of a certain writer or poet. For example:

Gün hanjary gökden ýere inende,

Güne garşy dogan Aýy gözel sen.

Tautology increases the effectiveness of the content in the poet’s work, gives a stylistic accent to the speech. For example:

Şirin-şirin salar hasaba dünýä,

Ajy-ajy goýar azaba dünýä…

Synecdoche is also used skillfully by the poet. For example:

Aňlamaý sözleme, tamda gulak bar.

Allegory. In allegory, the literal meaning of the description is not lost, but it is filled with a metaphorical meaning, that is, the description of life events is interpreted in a different way using figurative meanings. Also, through the image of animals and insects, courage and bravery are shown. Sometimes they also represent reprehensible characters. For example:

Mertler gezer boldy, namarda bagly,

Şirleriň tilkiden ýüregi dagly.

Möwlam özi diwan üçin otursa,

Peşe turup, dawa kylar pil bilen.

Hyperbola is a stylistic device that means a figurative exaggeration. The hyperbola was masterfully used in the works of Magtymguly Pyragy. For example:

Tartsa ýygyn, erär topraklar, daşlar.

Ýigrimi ýaşynda äriň ne gamy,

Ýykar dagy, daşy ereder demi.

Litotes. It is a stylistic device, as opposed to a hyperbole, which is used to denote measure, power, etc. means that its meaning is somewhat reduced. For example:

Mubaryzlar tutabilmez özüni,

Pil hem durar baglasalar gyl bile.

Omonimler. The modern Turkmen language is rich in lexemes that are similar in sound structure but have different meanings. For example:

At gazanan goç ýigidiň

Owwal bedew aty gerek.

Antonyms are found in all styles of language, but they are most commonly used in poem and journalistic styles, and are particularly important in making language effective, expressive, and lively.

In general, antonyms are an important linguistic tool in expressing ideas in contrasts with different colors, effectively, and figuratively. That is why they are widely used by creative people. For example:

Zemin tilär asmanda, asman tilär zeminde,

Biri-birine gümanda, güman senden bihabar.

Synonyms. Words (synonyms) with the same or similar meaning, differing in sound structure, are of three types according to their lexical-stylistic properties: stylistic, ideographic and contextual synonyms. Contextual synonyms are stylistic synonyms that derive from their use in poem. For example:

Hiç bir masgaralyk mundan ötermi,

Giden gury gitse, gelen boş gelse.

Epiphora is the repetition of rhythmic syllables, words, expressions after lines of poetry, phrases, or parts of sentences. Epiphora serves to enhance effectiveness in poem. For example:

Tenim dertli kylma, özümi gallaç,

Köňlüm giň et, goýma aju–ýalaňaç,

Zalyma duş etme, namarda mätäç,

Gam mende goýma, ýa, Züljelalym!

Antithesis is the juxtaposition of opposing ideas by the speaker to increase the effectiveness of the speech. For example:

Süýji günler köp hem bolsa az görner,

Ajy günler az hem bolsa, ötmez hiç.

Anaphora. The repetition of the same words or phrases at the beginning of parallel sentences is called anaphora. In poetry, anaphora performs a stylistic service. For example:

Adam bardyr, ony şalar çagyrdar,

Adam bar zulm edip garyp agyrdar,

Adam bar per düşek ýanyn agyrdar,

Adam bar ak kiz dyzyna degmez1.

 

Kimlerde altyn täçdir,

Kimler saýyl mätäçdir,

Kimler düýpden gallaçdyr,

Kim parça haly gözlär.

Ellipsis. The omission of any part of a sentence is called ellipsis. The use of ellipsis gives the speech a lively tone of speech, an artistic effect of expression. For example:

Bege – berim (ýagşy), şaha adalat ýagşy.

Parallelism is the similarity of the syntactic structure of sentences or parts of sentences that stand next to each other. For example:

Agyrdyr heňňamlar, uzakdyr ýollar,

Soraşsa ýigitler, sözleşse tiller.

Dostuňy egleme, nepden galmasyn,

Duşmanyň saklama, syryň bilmesin.

When you analyze the work of the great poet stylistically, you will see once again that the works of master Pyragy are of inestimable value, that the words in each line of his poems are artistic, meaningful, thoughtful, rich in national content, and inspire humanistic ideas.


References
  1. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow. Abadançylygyň röwşen gadamlary. – Aşgabat., 2022.
  2. Serdar Berdimuhamedow // https://turkmenistan.gov.tm/tk/habar/62691/hormatly-prezidentimiz-serdar-berdimuhamedow
  3. Şyhyýewa O. Türkmen diliniň stilistikasy. Ýokary okuw mekdepleri üçin okuw kitaby. – A.: Türkmen döwlet neşirýat gullugy, 2015 ý.
  4. Yumico Iwata. Creating suspense and surprise in short literary poem: A stylistic and narratological approach. The University of Birmingham 2008
  5. Short Mick. Style in poem, 2nd edition. London: Longman. 2007.
  6. Galperin I. Stylistics. Moscow, 1990.


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