Ataniyazova Bahar1, Nurlyyev Guwanchmyrat2
1Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Middle Eastern Languages
2Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Lecturer in the Department of Middle Eastern Languages

This article investigates the past tense verb forms in the Turkmen and Persian languages, aiming to contribute to the understanding of their grammatical interaction and improve translation practices. This study aims to provide deeper insights into the similarities and differences between Turkmen and Persian past tense verb forms. The findings are expected to contribute to improved understanding of Turkmen-Persian grammatical interaction and facilitate more accurate translations between these languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, grammatical interaction, past tense, verb forms

Category: 10.00.00 Philology

Article reference:
Ataniyazova B., Nurlyyev G. The past tense forms of the verb in Turkmen and Persian languages // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2024. № 2 [Electronic journal]. URL:

View this article in Russian

The past tense of the verb in modern Turkmen and Persian languages is one of the interesting and to some extent studied problems of the grammar of these languages. Studying them from a comparative perspective is one of the most important problems of modern linguistics. Because the transition of relations between peoples to a new level, the expansion of bilateral friendly cooperation between the Turkmen and Persian peoples, the relations between people caused by the needs of life create positive conditions for the interaction of ancient and rich languages belonging to two different types of language groups. Such relationships are evident in all parts of the language. The interaction between Turkmen and Persian grammars is one of the most complex aspects of such linguistic relations. In the conditions of Turkmen-Persian bilingualism, in-depth analysis and study of such language phenomena is not only useful for the educational process or language learning, but also very important from the point of view of translation. Because the basis of any artistic, official, scientific or other translation, it is necessary to know not only the vocabulary, but also the grammatical structure of those languages. For this reason, the article attempts to conduct special studies on the comparative grammar of languages, which lies at the core of the perfection of various types of translation, and the aim of the work is to complement the content of the few previous works that have studied the grammatical structure of the Turkmen and Persian languages in a comparative way. Also, the past tense forms of the verb, their meaning, usage features provide very rich language materials in this regard.

The tenses of the Turkmen language have been thoroughly studied by B. Charyarov in the work entitled “Tenses in Southwest Turkic Languages” (Ashgabat, 1969) in a comparative way with other Oghuz (Turkish, Azerbaijani, Gagauz) languages. In the same way, the use of the past tense in the modern Turkmen language and its written records is published by O. Allanazarov in “Past tense in modern literature” (Ashgabat, 1975), “Past tense forms in the written records of the Turkmen language” by E. Gajarova. (Ashgabat, 1990).

This problem was also studied in the work of M.H. Khydyrov ” К вопросу о происхождении форманта глагола прошедшего времени на –ды – ди в тюркских языках”.

“The past tense of the verb in the Turkmen language is expressed with the help of various affixes. Those affixes differ not only in form, but also in their meaning. Past tense forms are mainly used in the following ways: past definite tense ( -dy-di; -du-du), past continuous tense (-yardy-yardi), past tense for intention (-jakdy-jekdi), past indefinite tense (-ardy-erdi), past perfect tense (-ypdy-ipdi; -updy-updu), subjective past tense (-ypdyr-ipdir; -updur-ipdir)”

Several works have been done on the study of verb tenses in modern Persian, especially the past tense. The works of scholars who have specifically studied the Persian language are rare. Despite this, works such as “Grammar of the Persian Language” written by Ahmadi Hasan, Enveri Hasan Dağlar (Vol. I, Tehran, 1363 H.H.), “Grammar of the Persian Language” by Parviz Natal Khan (Tehran, 1355 H.H.) provides information about tense forms.

Investigating the meaning of the past tense of the verb in the Turkmen and Persian languages is one of the necessary conditions to consider in the translation of literary works in these languages. Because in one of these languages, it becomes possible to determine the period in which the event, or news is being described, and to convey it to the reader and listener without changing the time. Such a situation requires a person who reads or writes to use the grammar of the Turkmen and Persian languages, in particular, their tenses, their ways and means of interpretation, and use them correctly. But it should be noted that these conditions are not always maintained by the translator. For example, in Persian   آب از سرش گذشته”Suw seňrikden agypdyr” idioms is used. The message of the sentence is conveyed in the proverbial form, which is a means of expressing the past tense. This expression is translated into the Turkmen language as “Suw seňrikden agdy”. Then the message of the sentence is presented in the subjective past tense. Often, this expression is used as a part of a compound sentence in the Turkmen language, such as ” Suw seňrikden agansoň…” and is expressed through the past tense of the verb.

The commonalities and distinctive features of the Turkmen phrases and the Persian languages in terms of meaning depend on the following situations:

1) translation skills;

2) sentence structure and meaning;

3) having no same identity of the verbs;

4) a complex concept depends on the sequence of events.

Taking into consider of these conditions in the learning process, methodology, translation work facilitates language learning and translation work, helps to take into account the peculiarities of the grammatical structure of two languages, and to use them correctly.

  1. Çaryýarow B. Häzirki zaman türkmen dilinde işlik derejeleri. Aşgabat, 1957.
  2. Çaryýarow B. Häzirki zaman türkmen dilinde işlik zamanlary. Aşgabat,1957.
  3. Çaryýarow B. Günorta- günbatar türki dillerde işlik zamanlary. Aşgabat, 1969.
  4. Düýeji A. Magtymgulynyň ömri we döredijiligi. Tähran,1994
  5. Gajarowa E. Türkmen ýazuw ýadygärliklerinde işligiň öten zaman formalary. Aşgabat, 1990.
  6. Türkmen diliniň grammatikasy. Morfologiýa. Aşgabat, 1999.
  7. Gurbanow G. Pars we türkmen dillerindäki manydaş nakyllar. Aşgabat – 2005.
  8. Mostafa Naseri. Merwiň şöhleli ýyldyzlary. Aşgabat, 2009
  9. Алланазаров O. Прошедшее время в современном туркменском литературном языке. Ашхабад, 1975.
  10. Хыдыров M. Некоторые вопросы по истории туркменского языка. Ашхабад, 1975.
  11. ا ناتل خانلری پرویز. دستور زبان فارسی، بنیاد فرهنگ ایران، تهران، 1355.
  12. احمدی حسن و انوری حسن.  دستور زبان فارسی 1، انتشارات فاطمی، چاپ اول، تهران، 1363.
  13. احمدی حسن و انوری حسن.  دستور زبان فارسی 1، انتشارات فاطمی، چاپ اول، تهران، 1386

All articles of author «author»

© If you have found a violation of copyrights please notify us immediately by e-mail or feedback form.

Contact author (comments/reviews)

Write comment

You must authorise to write a comment.

Если Вы еще не зарегистрированы на сайте, то Вам необходимо зарегистрироваться: