THE MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE VERBS OF THINKING

Myradow Shohrat
Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages
5th year student

Abstract
This article investigates the morphological means used in the Turkmen language to form verbs related to thinking processes. Specifically, it focuses on the various morphological endings Through analysis of linguistic examples and literary references, the article explores how these morphological endings interact with root words, reflecting both mental and physical capabilities. Additionally, it examines how these endings convey nuances of thought processes, including individual and collective contemplation. The study also traces the historical usage of certain endings, noting their prevalence in classical literature compared to contemporary usage.

Keywords: cognitive processes, morphological means, verbs of thinking


Category: 10.00.00 Philology

Article reference:
Myradow S. The morphological structure of the verbs of thinking // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2024. № 2 [Electronic journal]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/en/issues/2024/02/101538

View this article in Russian

Verbs formed morphologically have following morphological means.

In the Turkmen language to the verbs of thinking formed morphologically concern such endings as -la, -le, -lan, -len, laş, -leş, dyk, -dik, -gyl, -gil.

When in the Turkmen language the verbs of thinking  have such endings as above, the root of the word as oý-, pikir-, ýat-, bil-, aň-, uý- consist of the verbs which are connected with person`s mental and physical abilities.

When these roots of the verbs are formed syntactically as mentioned before making the verb of thinking, they denote the verbs of thoughts of one person or many people.

-laş, -leş

Ýigitler biri-birine ümleşip, pytrap gidiberdiler (Görogly, 60s.)

Men ymam diýseň ýakyn dost, şonuň üçinem onuň ýigrimi alty manadyny men hasaplaşaryn. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 146s.)

Molla çekeleşip durman derrew ylalaşypdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 131s.)

-         Eger meni baş aýal diýip hasap etmeýän bolsaňyz, siz ýalňyşarsyňyz.

(Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 27 sah.)

-lan, -len

These endings keep the meaning of participial degree and connect with the verbs of thinking process of two or more people. Sometimes these verbs mean the action of one person.

Hopnyşan, köp oýlanma. (Görogly, 269 sah.)

-dyk, -dik

Her molla öz bildigin okar. (Nakyllar we atalar sözi, 56 sah.)

Oba ýygnaklarynda-da bildiklerinden dogry gepleýärler. (Ç. Aşyr. Göreş, 136 sah.)

-la, -le

In the Turkmen language these endings participate very actively to form the verbs of thinking. They also mean the action connected with a thinking process.

-         Ýeňňejan, munuň aýdan sözlerini diňle. (Görogly, 95 sah.)

Hernäçe pälwan adyny eşitse-de, özüni beýle ykjam tutup biljek gyzdyr diýip, Görogly ýatsa-tursa oslamaýardy. (Görogly, 682 sah.)

-gyl, -gil

The endings which form these verbs of thinking are not used actively in nowadays Turkmen language. They are more historical endings. The verbs of thinking with these endings you can find more in the classical literature. Nowadays in the Turkmen language these endings are mixed up with -gyn, -gin endings.

Eý hykarat bile bakan bizlere

Mejaz bilip, müňkür bolma sözlere,

Halal lukma ýagtylyk biýr gözlere,

Tugtul, ýagny bilbil, nan-y aşymdan. (Magtymguly, I, 28 sah.)

4) The verbs of thinking formed by degree and image forming endings.

a) Participial degree:

- Hä, Görogly, biz oýalynyşdyk, maslahatlaşdykahyry. (Görogly, 251 sah.)

Ýigitler biri-birine ümleşip, pytrap gidiberdiler. (Görogly, 60 sah.)

Olar öz aralarynda: “Geliň, onuň öküzçesine ýaby diýeliň” diýşip dilleşipdirler. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 208 sah.)

-         Gel, muny mysal arkaly çözeli. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 7 sah.)

“Seniň ugruňy bir aňlaly” diýdiler. (Görogly, 41 sah.)

b) Reflexive degree of the verbs:

Öwez oýlanyp, pikir edip barýar. (Görogly)

c) Imperative form of the verbs:

Zürýatsyz adam bir guryan gaçdyr, şony bilgin, Görogly. (Görogly, 118 sah.)

Dünýäni gyzgyn tutmagyl,

Işiň gör, bikär ýatmagyl,

Magtymguly, unutmagyl,

Gidejek sen gidejek sen (Magtymguly, II, 62 sah.)

d) Superlative degree:

Biri akyllysyran kişi bolupdyr. (Görogly, 145 sah.)

e) Adverbial verbs:

Ol ozalky köýen arlaryny ýatlap çapdy, kyrk müňler bilen gelenlerini ýatlap çapdy, aýlandy-çapdy, dolandy-çapdy, nişapurlylara ynjalyk berenok. (Görogly, 439 sah.)

Bu sözi aýdansoň, Öwez eşidibem dur, düşünibem dur welin, göýä hiç zat bilmedik kişi bolan bolup. (Görogly, 431 sah.)

Nowadays you can come across with the complex forms of structure of the verbs of thinking used in the Turkmen language. They are formed of three or more components. In many cases in the complex forms of structure of the verbs of thinking you can find not only the words which mean thinking but also the words connected with sense perception, emotional process and etc.

- Onda, hormatly mollam, siz çaga wagtyňyz örän akylly bolan bolsaňyz gerek. (Ependi, 9 sah.)

Ol ýeke galandan soň näçe pikir etse-de, bu bulaşyk hasapdan hiç baş çykaryp bilmändir. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 146 sah.)

Nasreddin ylgap çykypdyr-da, ejesiniň jesediniň ýanynda aglap-eňräp, bu öýe nälet okamaga başlapdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 183 sah.)

- Men seniň horazyňygöremogam, bilemogam – diýip, ogry sapalak atjak bolupdy. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, 170 sah.)

Muny görensoň, Göroglynyň huşy başyndan göterildi. (Görogly, 266 sah)

In the Turkmen language the verbs of thinking formed analytically occupy the most part, because connecting the words syntactically and making word combinations proper to the Turkmen language. In the Turkmen language the information about formation, structure and use of the analytic verbs was shown in the work of linguist M. Hudayguliev “Häzirki zaman türkmen dilinde analitik işlikler” (Analytical form of the verbs of the modern Turkmen language). There are word combinations among them which belong to the verbs of thinking. That`s why, all the analytic or compound verbs which mean thinking we added to the verbs of thinking formed analytically.

1)    The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb etmek:

Bizem öýde bar bolan zatlara kanagat etdik. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 111)

Itiň akmagy galtamandan tama eder. (Nakyllar we atalar sözi, sah. 140)

Adyl şa pellehananyň ýanynda wezir-wekilleri bilen maslahat edip otyrdy. (Görogly, sah. 319)

- Ýok, Görogly sen entek howlukma, ilatyňy çag  yryp, geňeş, maslahat et. (Görogly, sah. 249)

“Duşmanyň samolýotam uçanok, ol indi bizi topa-da tutanok, nemes gije urşanok diýýärdiler welin, şol çyn bolaýjak öýdýän” diýip, Andreý pikir etdi. (Ç.Aşyr, Göreş, sah. 412)

Nowadays in the Turkmen language instead of the verb “etmek”, you can find among the verbs of thinking formed analytically the synonym to this verb “kylmak” in archaic form.

Şatyr bolup ýoluň tutsun,

Ganym bolup, üstüň basyp,

Gulagny, burnuňy kesip,

Paş kylam, jahana sen. (Görogly, sah. 483)

Ajap bolar, ýigitler, men atam Jygaly begiň maňa beren öwdüni özümiňki bilen gatyp, size bir ýagşy pendi-nesihat kylaýyn. (Görogly, sah. 451)

2)    The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb bolmak:

Ajyň aňy bolmaz, dokuň – gaýgysy. (Nakyllar we atalar sözi, sah. 41)

Ahyryň dostlarynyň özleri belli bir güni bellänsoň, Nasreddin olar bilen ylalaşmaly bolupdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah.111)

Eger ölermen hyrydar bolansoň, dokuz manat tölemeli bolarsyňyz. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah.138)

Bu toý sowulynça, Handan batyr hemişe öz başyna hüňňürdäp, garagoply boldy. (Görogly, sah. 327)

3)    The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb çykmak:

Hopnyşan-da ýatdan çykdy, beýleki-de ýatdan çykdy. (Görogly, sah. 266)

-Ýöne äriň ýekedigini ýadyňdan çykarmagyn. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 28)

4) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb almak:

Bagşy aýdar, şahym, aklymy aldy.

Ýüregme düwünler saldy,

Ylgar namasyndan bir nama çaldy,

Alnyma haýbatlar saldy bir çopan. (Görogly, sah. 151)

-Görogly, sen beýniňi aldyryp, çaşyp ýörüň ýa meniň göwnämemi, sen nirde geňeş soraýarsyň bizden – diýdi. (Görogly, sah. 221)

5) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb bilmek:

Görogly beg, ýat et Kadyr Jepbary,

Pirim medet bersin – Hezreti Aly,

Ynanmaň han-bege, ýokdur wepaly,

Pirim, syrlaryny bilip getiriň. (Görogly, sah152)

Emma ol munuň düýşdügini ýa huşdugyny bilmän, pallap bir gerindi. (Görogly, sah. 91)

Köňül açylar, jem bolar,

Bir-bire ynsan ugraşsa.

Huş gider akyl kem bolar,

Dil bilmez haýwan ugraşsa. (Magtymguly, Saýlanan eserler, sah. 83)

6) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb ýetmek:

Magtymguly, sözle aklyň ýetinçä,

Ahyrýetiň gazan bikär ýatynça,

Tamugdadyr tä dünýäden ötinçä,

Ýamanhatyn ýagşy äre duş gelse. (Magtymguly, 1t., sah. 63)

Öz-özünden akly ýetmez,

Akyllaryň sözün tutmaz,

Ýoksullyk ýok bolup gitmez,

On iş drek etmeýen ärden (Magtymguly, 1t., sah. 117)

7) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb batmak:

Nurberdiniň bu gürrüňlerini eşidip, garyndaşlarynyň bary pikire batdy. (Ç.Aşyr. Göreş, sah. 51)

8) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb gelmek:

Ol pikir edip, pikir edip ahyryn jaňjagazyň jyňňyrdysyny gulak eşidýär diýen netijä gelipdir. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 274)

Hoja: “a-hä, görýän welin, ojagam aýalymdan gorkýan eken” diýen netijä gelipdir. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 40)

Beýhuş bolup ýatyr, zaňňar… Burnuna hyş derman tutdylar. Üç sagatdan soň essine geldi. (Görogly, sah. 236)

“Bu zaňňar beren zatlaryny gaýdyp diläýjekmik-ä, gel-ä özi mertlik edenine görä, menem bitireýin diýip aýdaýyn-da” diýip, göwnüme geldi. (Görogly, sah.50)

9) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb çykarmak:

Kakasynyň beren öwüt-ündewini Ependi şol bada ýadyndan çykaranmyş. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 10)

Onuň özgelerden ökde çykyp, jenaýatkärleri gola salanyny içine sygdyryp bilmeýändigi, Omar bagşa gürrüň beresiniň, magtanasynyň gelýändigi duýulýardy. (E.Ataýew, Zylmat, sah. 9)

10) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb satmak:

Ýol uzak bolansoň, baý akyl satmaga başlapdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah.69)

11) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb çaşmak:

Çopan biçäräniň aklyn çaşyrma

Zyýada derdimi hetden aşyrma. (Görogly, sah. 138)

12) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb ýetmek/ ýetirmek:

Onuň aklynyň näme üçin kelte bolmalydygyna men-ä akyl ýetirip bilýän däldirin. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 21)

Aýaly şondan soň ondan her gün pul getirmegi talap etmändir, sebäbi allanyň Nasreddini betbagt etmejegine göz ýetiripdir.

13) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb düşmek:

Göroglynyň zürýatsyzdygy ýadyna düşüp, ýene hapa boldy. (Görogly, sah. 118)

Günlerde bir gün Anastratyň dükany ýarmagyň küýüne düşüpdir. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 158)

14) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb başlamak:

Bu habaryeşidenleriň bary Mollanyň ýanyna gelip, ony ýagarmaga başlapdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 171)

Myhmanlar ýedi dogany hem onuň gandüşer garyndaşlarynyň nähili zatlary hun ujundan berip biljekleri hakda ýuwaş ses bilen ýene özara maslahatlaşmaga başladylar. (Ç.Aşyr. Göreş, sah. 47)

Nasreddin ýalňyşyp, täzeden hasaplamaga başlapdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 276)

15) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb düwmek:

Öýleri daş bolansoň, dostunyň öýünde ýatmagy ýüregine düwüpdir. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah.95)

“Gel, şu gyrnagymy muňa bereýin-de” diýip, ýüregine düwdi. (Görogly, sah. 485)

16) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb kesmek:

Ol Andalyp şady-horram boldy gülge sataşyp,

Aklym kesmeý, hekaýat baryn ondan sormuşam. (Magtymguly, 1t., sah. 92)

17) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb azaşmak:

-Aý, Molla, sen alyňdan azaşdyňmy. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 127)

18) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb oýarmak:

Nasreddin beýle diýmegi gök satýanda algymy alaryn diýen umyt oýarypdyr. (Ýigrimi üç Ependi, sah. 146)

19) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb çaşmak:

Magtymguly, akly çaşan,

Sözläp gidermi gartaşan,

Daňsäher çagy arlaşan,

Eleňler ýaran eýledi. (Magtymguly, 1t., sah. 233)

Garşymyzdan ganym geldi,

Bize kement düşdi bu gün

Öwez jan kapyra gitdi,

Akyl-huşum çaşdy bu gün. (Görogly, sah. 215)

Eý, janawar Gyrat özüň bilmeseň, meniň akylym çaşdy – diýip, jylawy elinden goýberdi. (Görogly, sah. 306)

20) The structure of the verbs of thinking with a helping verb öwretmek:


References
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  3. Ärnazarow S. “Türkmen dilinde sözleýiş işlikleri” Aşgabat, Ylym, 1982ý.
  4. Васильев А.П. «Семантика русского глагола» М., Высшая школа, 1981г.
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