THE MORALITY PRINCIPLE IN THE POETRY OF MAGTYMGULY

Garayeva Gowher Hayytmyradovna1, Hasmammedova Aygozel Tagandurdyyevna2
1Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Lecturer in the Department of Russian language
2Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Lecturer in the Department of Roman and Germanic languages

Abstract
The article explores the enduring legacy of Magtymguly Pyragy, a seminal figure in Turkmen literature and Eastern thought, through the lens of moral discourse within his poetry. It acknowledges the significant contributions of both Western European and Russian orientalists, as well as Turkmen scholars, in advancing the study of Magtymguly's works. Despite extensive scholarly attention, the depth and complexity of Magtymguly's poetry continue to offer fertile ground for further investigation, particularly in the realm of moral philosophy.

Keywords: investigtion, Magtymguly, moral principles, poetry


Category: 09.00.00 Philosophy

Article reference:
Garayeva G.H., Hasmammedova A.T. The morality principle in the poetry of Magtymguly // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2024. № 2 [Electronic journal]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/en/issues/2024/02/101537

View this article in Russian

At different times, great efforts were made to study the works of Magtymguly Pyragy, the founder of our classical Turkmen literature, the great thinker and master of words of the East. In this field, Western European and Russian orientalists Arminii Vamberi, W.V. Bartold, F. A. Bakulin, A. N. Samoilovich, Turkmen scientists A. Gulmuhammedov, B. A. Garryev, A. Kekilov, M. Kosaev, Z. Muhammedova, G. O. Charyev, M. Annamuhammedov, A. Bekmyradov, and other well-known writers have completed great services.

Magtymguly Pyragy’s poetry is a bottomless ocean, multifaceted. Therefore, the science of studying Magtymguly still has many areas to be studied on a scientific basis. One of them is the moral issues that the great thinker often addressed in his works. In this field, the wise person makes it a very important issue for a person to come to the world and gain respect, honour, and high status in the country.

It is important to note one thing first. Magtymguly Pyragy was guided by what he learned from real life and what he saw with his own eyes, as well as from ancient spiritual sources. In this matter, it is undeniable that his father Dovletmammet Azadi was a role model for Pyragy. Because, with his intelligence, Azadi lived a life that was exemplary not only for family life, but for the whole of Turkmen. Therefore, the life style learned from his father, the ideas inspired by the work “Wagzy-Azat” born by the miracle of his pen, opened a wide way for Magtymguly to develop the principle of morality, which is the decoration of human life, in his poetry. After all, the works of Hoja Ahmet Yasawi, Hoja Bahaveddi, and Hoja Bekdash promoting morality contributed to the formation of his worldview in this field.

Intelligence is the root of morality in Magtymguly Pyragy’s work. A person who gives place to wisdom can gather moral qualities in himself.

Akyl et jahanyň rahyn, röweşin,

Ygtybar etmegin dünyä duruşyn,

Magtymguly, ýagşy görerdi işin,

Kyrkyndan soň saýyl bolsa adamzat. [5, p. 284].

A fool is a morally depraved person. Magtymguly describes it as follows:

Almaz guşlar awa çapmaz,

Hünärsiz öz syryn ýapmaz,

Märekede orun tapmaz,

Akly-kemaly bolmasa [5, p. 229].

Our ancestors created a proverb: ” Ynsap hulky – onuň görki.” Good character is the adornment of human life. People with good manners and good character always have a place among the good. But a person with good morals does not find a place among people with bad behavior. In this regard, Magtymguly says:

Akly ýagşylar unutmaz,

Gury agaja ýaprak bitmez,

Akylly är mesgen tutmaz,

Hulky söýülmegen ýerde. [5, p. 223].

If we think of morality as a tree, its root is wisdom. The stronger the wisdom, the more beneficial the tree.

Maturity is perfection. And in the last sense it is morality. When a person is perfect, he is precious. Magtymguly urges man to be perfect. Because such a person has the quality of perfection, he can bring respect to himself and benefit those around him.

Dil bilen, akly kemally,

Yüzi hem bolsun görkana. [2, p. 18].

A trait is a person’s external image, the image of his or her inner character. A person of good character is moral. A person who deals with a bad thing is immoral, harmful to himself and those around him.

Tüşgeç ol mejlis era, her kim çeker, bimar eder,

Al bilen aldap seni her dem özüge zar eder,

Sag-salamat goýmaýyn imdi özüge ar eder,

Gol-aýagyn şel kylyp, halk içre any har eder,

Bu sypatlar birle ol. Çekmäň ki, betkärdir çilim. [2, p. 158].

Her ismiň bir sypat le,

Men talyba mujella. [4,  p. 352].

Ey sypatyndan tekellüm her til üzre müň sena. [4,  p. 530].

When Magtymguly addresses the issue of morality, he considers aspects of human nature. A person can increase moral value by being good-natured.

Sarp kyl, päk tiliňni hulky-hoş bügzide bol,

Kyl duta puştuň amaldan, biriya senjide bol! [3, p. 117].

Akly ýagşylar unutmaz,

Gury agaja ýaprak bitmez,

Аkylly är mеsgеn tutmаz,

Hulky söýülmеgеn еrdе.  [5, p. 223].

Morality in Magtymguly’s definition is faith. Faithfulness is honesty, conscientiousness. Morality is having a conscience. So these two directions have their roots in his verses.

Gögerse dyrnaklar, alarsa gözler,

Imandan özgesi hiçdir, ýaranlar. [4, p. 330].  

Iman gazan, ynsabyňy ýuwutmagyn,

Göre-bile özüň oda atmagyn. [4, p. 49].

Owwal aman, ahyr iman istärem,

Hak gulnuň myradyn berse gerekdir. [4, p. 52].

Magtymguly, okyp “Kur’an”,

Hudadan dilegil iman. [4, p. 175].

Her kimde bolmasa, iman eseri,

Ýüregi oýanmas, syýa seň bolar. [4, p. 533].

At different times, writers, poets, scientists expressed their opinions about the moral appeals of Magtymguly Pyragy. Academician Yegor Isaev says about this: “I think that there is no poet in the East or in the West who has worked on the moral qualities that adorn a person so deeply, thoroughly and comprehensively as Magtymguly. Philosophical thoughts of a great poet-thinker are so profound and at the same time clear to many.” [6, p. 247].

The great sage relates his thoughts on morality to the nature of man. Morality is a person’s sense of moral responsibility, fairness, conscience, honesty in front of society or in a particular situation. In this regard, our Hero Arkadag writes in the book “Türkmeniň döwletlilik ýörelgesi”: “The recognition of moral standards in Turkmenism is halal living. Halal life is determined by a person’s status. [1, p. 214].

As every perfect literary heritage is a model from the time of its creation, the moral poems of Magtymguly Pyragy served as a model for poets who completed great works in the development of our classical literature. Mollanepes, Kemine, Mätäji, Seydi, Zelili, masters of the word, developed the moral qualities encouraged in the poems of their spiritual mentor, Magtymguly.

The wise Magtymguly Pyragy’s thoughts on morality have a deep meaning. The poetry of the master of words in this field are a spiritual treasure whose value will not diminish. Therefore, those works go beyond the scope of national value and become public value.


References
  1. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow. Türkmeniň döwletlilik ýörelgesi. – Aşgabat: TDNG, 2020.
  2. Magtymguly. Şygyrlar. Üç tomluk. I tom.– Aşgabat: Türkmenistan, 1992.
  3. Magtymguly. Şygyrlar. Üç tomluk. III tom.– Aşgabat: Türkmenistan, 1994.
  4. Meredow A. Magtymgulynyň düşündırışli sözlügı. Günbed Kabus, 1997.
  5. Magtymguly. Eserler ýygyndysy.– Aşgabat: Ylym, 2014.
  6. Magtymguly – ylham çeşmesi – Aşgabat: TDNG, 2014.
  7. Türkmen diliniň düşündirişli sözlügi. I tom. – Aşgabat: Ylym, 2016.

 



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