Aliyeva Aynura Anver qizi1, Mammadova Shalala Vidadi qizi2
1Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Sciences, associate professor
2Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, master student

The proper lubrication and well-oiled system are one of the important aspects of internal combustion engines that prolong engine life and enable the vehicle to operate at high efficiency and performance.
The dilution of detergent-dispersant additives in the base oils can cause interaction with the components of base oil. During the dissolving process a solvate shell is formed that includes hydrocarbons of the base oil. Moreover the additives effectiveness depends on the base oil composition and its purification degree. This study intends to investigate the interaction of lubricating base oil composition with additives and influence of oil-solvent on the performance of lubricant additives.

Keywords: base oils, component, deposit, hydrocarbons, lubricant additives, solvent

Category: 02.00.00 Chemistry

Article reference:
Aliyeva A.A.q., Mammadova S.V.q. Interaction of composition of lubricating base oils with additives // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2023. № 5 [Electronic journal]. URL:

View this article in Russian


Lubricating oils play a significant role in the increasing of life expectancy of internal combustion engines. Moreover, proper lubrication is an important factor to maintain better performance of automotive engines [1].

Base oils and a variety of chemical additives are the essential components for formulation of automotive lubricants that impact the lubrication system of modern engines. Therefore, creation of the interaction with base oils and additives are crucial for the efficient use of engine oils [2, 3]. The base oil composition influences the effectiveness of the detergent-dispersant additives in automotive lubricants [4]. Detergent-dispersant additives are most common additives used in modern motor oils. Furthermore, they are essential component in order to formulate of any engine oils [4-6].

Commercial additives are a solution of the active substance in oil-solvent. Oil-solvent can be synthetic and petroleum oil [2, 7]. The composition of oil-solvent of commercial additives can contain paraffin-naphthenic, aromatic (monocyclic, bicyclic, polycyclic) hydrocarbons and resins [8]. Bicyclic, polycyclic hydrocarbons and asphaltene and resins components can decrease the effectiveness of the action of additives. They are in the form of associates in the base oil, therefore they complicate the interaction of base oils with additives [3, 7, 8].

Experimental Part

Two commercial additives, petroleum high alkaline calcium sulfonate and high alkaline calcium alkyl salicylate are used in the research.

Standard research methods were used for determination of alkalinity and kinematic viscosity of base oils. Analytical methods (change in electrical conductivity, determination of structural group composition of base oils) were used in order to evaluate the interactions between additives and base oil components [9-12].

The electrical conductivity method for measurement of hydrocarbon liquids was used to study intermolecular interactions in the additives colloidal systems and oil-oxidation products. Determination of electrical conductivity was carried out on an electrometric installation. Any slight change in colloidal systems is accompanied by a change in their donor-acceptor properties, that is reflected in the indicator of the electrical conductivity [9-11].

The determination of chemical group composition method is chromatographic method that provides the separation of the sample into 6 groups: paraffin-naphthenic hydrocarbons, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes. Moreover, the high-temperature catalytic oxidation method was used to study the changes in the physical and chemical properties of the base oils and to get the indicators of lubricants at high-temperatures [10, 11].

Results and Discussion

The solvent-oil of commercial additives contains resins, polycyclic and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which can reduce the effectiveness of the additives (active substance) [8]. The active substance was isolated from commercial additives prepared with petroleum oil-solvents using a steam solvent (precipitation and decantation). The isolated active substance was dissolved in PAOM synthetic oil and a “purified” additive was obtained.

“Purified” calcium sulfonate interacts with 40-45% of resins, while commercial calcium sulfonate practically does not interact with resins. The process of chemical interaction of the “purified” additive is influenced by a drop in electrical conductivity with an increase in the concentration of resins (Fig.1).

Fig. 1. Influence of resins on the electrical conductivity of calcium sulfonate

1 – synthetic oil-solvent; 2 – petroleum oil-solvent

A slight abrupt change in the electrical conductivity of commercial calcium sulfonate in the region of 40-80% resin concentration in the additive-resin mixture indicates a variation in the solvate layer of additives. However, the replacing of the oil-solvent of calcium salicylate causes not only the changing of reactivity of “purified” additive, but also its nature of the interaction (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Influence of resins on the electrical conductivity of calcium salicylate

1 – synthetic oil-solvent; 2 – petroleum based oil-solvent.

The chemical interaction with resins (20-22% in the mixture with an additive) occurs in the case of commercial calcium salicylate, that is indicated by a drop in electrical conductivity followed by a steady constant value of electrical conductivity. The interaction of “purified” calcium salicylate occurs in steps. At the first stage, as in the case of a commercial additive, chemical interaction occurs with resins (18-20%), that is indicated by a drop in electrical conductivity. A further increase in electrical conductivity in the resin concentration of 20–45% shows the occurrence of colloidal process-solubilization (second stage). So, the difference in the reactivity of additives depends on the composition of the oil-solvent.

Dissolution of additives in the base oil leads to the formation of a new solvate shell. Moreover, physical changes occur in the structure of the additives. These processes affect the colloidal stability, the effectiveness of the lubricant additives.

The greatest interaction occurs between additives and bicyclic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, resins. These groups of hydrocarbons are sources of high-temperature deposits, while their presence in the base oil increases the colloidal stability of the additives.

Sulfonates and salicylates additives contain “strongly” polar groups and under the action of an electric field they are deposited. Dissolution of such additives in the base oil causes the physical interaction between the polar components of the base oil (polycyclic aromatic and resinous substances). Furthermore, these interconnections lead to a decrease in the formation of high temperature oxidation and an improvement in the colloidal stability of the lubricant additives.


Commercial additives prepared on the base of synthetic oil-solvents perform their functions 20-30% more efficiently compared to similar additives prepared on the base of petroleum oil-solvents. Replacement of petroleum oil-solvents with synthetic oil-solvents leads to the increasing of the reactivity of sulfonates and salicylates additives.

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