Lyubeyev Vitaliy Sergeyevich
Crimean University of Culture, Arts and Tourism

This research is devoted to the formation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the genre of action-spy novel in the context of the modern theory of the genre. The process of formation of the genre is represented as a cell model consisting of a genre matrix and genre dominance. Due to external factors genre species occur, in particular, action-spy novel.

Keywords: a genre formation, a spy novel-action, genre, spy novel, the cell model

Category: 10.00.00 Philology

Article reference:
Theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation of the spy novel-action genre // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2016. № 2 [Electronic journal]. URL:

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Defining the genre structure of the spy novel, you need to focus on the fact that the consideration of the spy novel genre as a separate genre is not the ultimate goal of our research, and we merely consider this phenomenon in part, directly related to our work – the formation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the modification of the spy novel-action genre. However, the basis is the genre matrix of a spy novel and “cell” model of the genre formation developed by M.V. Norets [1] in his study mentioned above.

Thus by analyzing the accumulated literary material, the researcher concludes that the preconditions for the emergence of a separate  “spy novel” genre  are inseparable historical and literary process, “mobility” of the genre, the various factors influencing the genre “core” (the term created by M. V. Norets).

As a result, after the processing of the obtained analysis of the data, the author offers the following type of genre matrix. As a methodological basis Norets takes into consideration a set of genre features offered by N.D. Tamarchenko [6-10]. However, characteristics are divided into static and dynamic. The hero in the representation of M.V. Norets [1-5] is a permanent part of the genre matrix, which is realized through its action in the artistic world, which (in the final analysis, or as a whole) breaks and restore impartial world balance. Therefore, it allocates the hero of “action” and the hero of “consciousness.” However, according to N.D. Tamarchenko, a mismatch of the hero with its role (function) appears in the novel, which is directly reflected in the reasons for refusal to act or committing inappropriate actions [8]. Our position tends to the opposite version of the hero, where the hero is the bearer of the artistic act, which is not coincide of its consciousness with the world (which does not recognize and does not understand it).

Artistic type of event, in the treatment of  N.D. Tamarchenko, V.I. Tyupa, S.N. Broytman, was described in the “theory of artistic discourse. Theoretical Poetics “[7] is the inevitable appointment of the protagonist and antagonist from opposite parts of the artistic world.

The second component of the genre matrix according to M.V. Norets is the structure of the plot. It is the main (and possessing the” generic “specificity) plot situation” [1, p. 33]. The researcher considers it as “the single source of the deployment of the plot.

The basic plot situation consists of several interrelated features: a doubling of the central event; law of retardation; equity and equality of chance and necessity; equality and interrelation of the  cyclical and cumulative plot schemes; randomness and conventionality of the boundaries of the plot [1, p. 32].

M.V. Norets sees the doubling of the central event in the following way. Each individual event reveals the essence of the world ,  which consists in unity and equality of opposing forces or principles, are equally necessary for the existence as a whole.

The Law of retardation. It is a result of the equality of two distinct factors of scene deployment: initiative of the hero and “initiative of the” circumstances. In our understanding, “initiative” of the circumstances is primary in relation to the initiative of the hero, because the reflective reaction of the hero depends directly on the current of the artistic world and the circumstances that dictate the behavior of the hero.

Equality and the equivalence of a chance. Direct interpretation of the confrontation implies their functioning as a basic of the story line.

Equality and interrelation of cyclical and cumulative plot schemes.     M.V. Norets [p. 33] following the investigators [6, 7, 9] sees the specificity of the artistic plot exactly in the i equality and interections the principles of plot construction. Cyclic “frame” (“the initial and final situations are similar, although the second differs from the first by rising the status of a hero, or an internal change,” his ”eminence “) is combined with the “stringing” of events inside the frame. The cumulative part of the plot plays an retarded role. In our opinion, the cyclic frame adopts a “pulse” character (giving a sharp boost to the “evolution” or “degradation” of the hero).

The randomness and arbitrariness of the plot’s boundaries.                       N.D. Tamarchenko, V.I. Tyupa, S.N. Broytman [7] tend to distinguish  two options complete coincidence or suddenness (unmotivated) initial and / or final events from the perspective of the reader is available: if he hadn’t been brought to the major events or the logic of their deployment suddenly broken in the end, the boundaries of plot can submit to him as the result of the author’s arbitrariness; the reader may realize a convention of such beginnings and endings that seem natural to him ( unintended) when all events seem just part of beginning and endless process of life.

However, in our view, the author’s arbitrariness is not only the sudden violation of the logic of their deployment, but also is a change of event sequences of artistic time.

In our opinion, following the ND Tamarchenko VI Tyupoy SN Broytmanom [7] M.V. Norets considers that these signs served as the basis for the two-component matrix containing the matrix of the genre and the genre dominance. Genre dominant, in this context, appears to us as the “driving force” of transformation of the genre.

The author singles out the genre constant – “architecturally stable” core – i.e., it’s a code consisting of “frozen” signs, which involve the novel to a particular genre. According to his words – it is a genre matrix [1, p. 34; 2, p. 39]. Matrix is a model that possesses certain properties and is understood as an example, the scheme of the object from which other objects are reproduced. There are also “a genetic component, the idea of the parent form, as it is transmitting its properties by inheritance.”

In the matrix there is the ability to generate a similar _ objects and properties, i.e. multiply itself. Matrix – is a maternal (generating) “skeleton”, suggesting a specific set of novel genre features that distinguishes this genre form from any other. Such properties of the matrix as the organization, dynamism, stability / variation, programme behavior of the matrix components genre features, which are organized in a matrix in the form field. Derivational-mediated movement of genre features in the space of the genre matrix promotes the appearance of modifications.

The matrix appears in the presentation of the author as an invariant of genre form “the core”, “the grain”, from which in the result of transformation variants appears.

This observation is fundamental for our research, because it authorizes to believe that movement originating from the center to the periphery of the matrix, and then in the genre dominant, are the basis of “life” cycle of the genre as a whole. Movement of individual characters from the center to the periphery or vice versa, during the cross-textual derivation indicates about modification of the matrix and the appearance of new modification, but the essence of the matrix is preserved.

Genre dominant in this context, is being seen to the researcher as the dynamic envelope, a set of “secondary» variability signs forming the genre. In our opinion, the diversion conditioned the movement of dynamic genre features in the outer space of the matrix under the influence of various factors political, moral, socio-cultural, etc.; is the basis of divergence of genre modifications and shapes.

Taking into account the above assumptions M.V. Norets offers the following version of the image process of the genre forming. The original genre matrix, being a static unit (the “core”) is exposed to influence of the various factors: the philosophical (the changes in the perception of world view), moral (as a consequence of changes in the perception of the world picture changes of the internal measure of external events), moral (internal external manifestations of changes of internal measure), social (the processes taking place in society in a historical context), political (geographically not marked paradigmatic changes affecting all sectors of society), historical (factor is a set of all the above, defining a vector of human evolution) [2, p. 40].

These factors, according to scientists, is a catalyst not only transformation in the genre, and their combined effect provides a basis for the emergence of entirely new genres that do not have maternal matrix and, accordingly, without the genetic traits that provide the ability to define their global identity.

Initiating under the influence of these factors, the genre matrix gives message in genre dominant _, “amorphous” shell, genetically predisposed to change, and the transformation taking place in the dynamic membrane, realizing in occurrence of variant modifications of genre a genre varieties. This implementation takes the form of genre varieties. At a time when the “specific weight” of the specific implementation reaches “specific gravity” of maternal genre _ matrix or exceeds it the process of “budding” happens. The result of this process is the appearance of the new genre matrix, the new code, the new set of components forming static “core”. The author argues that there is a new full-fledged genre unit, but the features of genetic similarity with the maternal matrix, can be traced. The processes occurring with the genre matrix and genre dominant are caused by the passage of time, the course of history. This division M.V. Norets compares with cell division in the human body [p. 41].

However, in our opinion, the question of the genetic penetration of the traits of the original matrix in the new matrix remains unsolved. In one case, the author claims that there is a completely “new” genre without maternal matrix and without the genetic traits, in another case, the author points to the possibility to trace the lines of genetic similarity with the maternal matrix. It seems to us that the process of genetic link between the original matrix and a new matrix is similar in meaning to the process of transformation of stem cells of the body into any organ of the body under the influence of certain factors and in certain circumstances. In other words, the direct transfer of the genetic traits from the maternal matrix to the new matrix is impossible, because , according to M.V. Norets “static core” instituting under the influence of external factors, gives promise to an amorphous shell”  not touching the static core of the new shell [p. 41].

Most probably, transmission of genetical information of original matrix occur trough transformed nuclear cells, infiltrated in amorphous shell, slightly changed, but preserved their genetic signs.

In conclusion, cellar model of genre formation proposed by M.V. Norets are the model that describe processes of genre formation in the most precise and transparent way. Moreover, we consider that above mentioned model represents process of genre invariant formation in structure of genre in the most complete way. In such way, proposed by M.V. Norets cellar model of genre formation will be taken as a basis in out research.

It is believed that the genre consists of the genre matrix and the genre dominant . Contained in the genre matrix “core” cells under the influence of external factors fall into mobile, “amorphous” shell, bringing genetic information, which later become the basis of genre options. If a set of mutations in the genre dominant reaches a “critical” mass of the original genre matrix , a genre variant  separates from the original version of the genre dominant , and perhaps begin to function as a separate genre. Particular attention should be paid to the factors that affect the genre structure _, because, in our opinion, exactly the natural course of history defines a set of factors that, in its turn transforms genre modification in the same vector with the historical paradigm.

Thus, the genre matrix of a spy novel is a “maternal” matrix containing the genetic information in the form of “core” cells, which then naturally will reflect in genre dominant of the genre variety of action spy novel.

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