Muratova Madina Orynbekovna
Kazakh University of International Relations and World Languages ​​named after Abylaikhan
master degree student

The article analyzed the theoretical propositions regarding the issue of competence and its components. The problems of discursive competence and its formation by foreign language in high school.

Keywords: communication, competence, discourse, discursive competence, foreign language communicative competence

Category: 13.00.00 Pedagogics

Article reference:
Discursive competence development at English lessons in high school // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2014. № 5. P. 2 [Electronic journal]. URL: https://web.snauka.ru/en/issues/2014/05/34536

View this article in Russian

Communicative competence refers to the number of basic categories of the modern theory and practice of teaching foreign languages ​​and, in particular, English as a foreign language.
In the scientific literature there are many definitions of communicative competence. There are different approaches to the structural analysis of the communicative competence.
The term “communicative competence” appeared on the idea of ​​the American linguist Chomsky (N.Chomsky) on linguistic (language competence). However, the first linguist who established the difference between language as a system, which he called «langue» and speech («parole») was Ferdinand de Saussure (FerdinanddeSaussure). According to Saussure under a system involves only language that can be learned, while the speech activity – it is a product of a particular speaker.
In the mid-1960s of the last century D. Hymes (DellHymes) coined the concept of “communicative competence» (theconceptofcommunicativecompetence). In the opinion of D. Hymes was the essence of communicative competence in the internal sense of situational appropriateness of language. The structure consisted of communicative competence: grammatical, sociolinguistic, strategic, discursive competence [5, c.5].
Theory D. Hymes was a very important contribution to the teaching of a second language (foreign). It was the first revolutionary step in the field of language teaching.
In 1980 M. Kaneyl (M.Canale) and M.Sveyn (M. Swain) continued working on the development of the theory of communicative competence, since it is widely recognized and adopted.
Problems of theoretical and practical approaches to the formation of communicative competence continue to be developed in the works of modern foreign teachers: D. Wilkins (Jennifer D.Wilkins), A. Harding (A. Harding), P. Hartman (P. Hartman), D. Johnson (D . Johnson), N. Kerr (N. Kerr), J. Hill (J. Hill), M. Long (M. Long), P.Poter (P. Potter), etc.
Research results are used extensively in practice. For example, one of the sites for teachers of colleges and universities in the U.S. noted that language teaching in the United States aimed at achieving learners communicative competence: the ability to correctly use language to achieve communicative goals. Declared part 4 QC: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic (linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, andstrategic).
In domestic Didactics term “communicative competence” was introduced into scientific use M.N.Vyatyutnevym. He proposed to understand communicative competence “as the choice and implementation of programs of verbal behavior depending on a person’s ability to navigate in a particular environment interaction; ability to classify situations depending on the theme, objectives, communication systems arising pupils to talk, as well as during a conversation in the process of mutual adaptation. “ [5, c. 3-8].
Known domestic Methodist Solovova EV gives the following definition of foreign language communicative competence, “foreign language communicative competence may be regarded as necessary and sufficient for a certain age level of language skills, speech skills and socio-cultural knowledge to the student to be able and willing communicatively appropriate and successfully pursue their verbal behavior” [9, c .7].
Based on the analysis of methodological literature and views of some researchers EVSchuman concludes that the best is the identification of the following components of communicative competence: linguistic, sociolinguistic, socio-cultural, social, discursive, strategic [10, p.2].
EV Schumann is the first domestic linguistics researcher, has proposed a definition of discourse competence.
Discursive aspect of communicative competence means quality using language skills in speech activity, correctness and accuracy in speaking and writing in a foreign language, logic and the information richness of expression, which also means respect for and understanding of another culture.
Thus, discursive competence is one of the structural elements of the foreign language communicative competence. Foreign language communicative competence is currently defined as a basis for learning a foreign language.
Discursive competence, based on the definition of EV Schumann is a skill the student to understand and create the most logical and coherent speech utterances presented orally or in writing.
The basis of this term is the notion of discourse as an independent linguistic categories, which has become widespread in recent years.
In recent years the popularity of the notion of discourse led to the vagueness of the term and expand. In the broadest sense of the discourse – is the process of using any language or any language use lasting more than one bid.
Start by asking the notion of discourse proposed definitions modern dictionaries.
Thus, in the Oxford English Dictionary the word «discourse» interpreted as “conversation (architect),” but also “thesis, treatise, sermon,” ie, as a particular genre, which focuses on the idea in its development [12, c.124].
Webster’s Dictionary (Dictionary of American English), in turn, treats discourse as “communication, communication as a subject of study,” but also as “the process of communication (oral or written), focused on the subject of conversation and it develops;lecture, treatise, sermon, the thesis. “ Here discourse – this field of activity, and material form incarnation, and the structure (format) verbal activity [11, c.98].
According to the definition of DA Arutunova presented in Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary, the discourse is a text plus context (no context for historical texts does not allow them to call the discourse); discourse includes paralinguistic that is read by the function – rhythmic (avtodirizhirovanie) reference (deictic gestures), semantic (facial expressions, gestures, connotation), emotional evaluation, as well as effects on the function of the interlocutor (illocutionary force); discourse acts as a triangle: three of his hand – a pragmatic, cognitive (frames / scenarios) and mental processes (discourseprocessing as the choice of means to achieve the goal) [1, 105].
Thus, the definition of discourse presented in dictionaries, are ambiguous and do not provide a complete picture about the concept, necessitating recourse to the notion of the author’s definition discourse.
According to the definition ES Kubryakova, discourse is a “form of language use in real time, which reflects a certain type of social activity, created with the aim of designing a special world (image) with the help of his detailed description of the language and is generally part of the process of communication between people, characterized by communication partners , and the terms of the objectives “[6, c.525].
AA Kibrik defines discourse as “the unity of the process of linguistic activity and its result, ie the text” [4, c.10].
AA Kibrik considers discourse as a communicative act, the structure of which are distinguished speaker and addressee.
According V.G.Borbotko in speech activity discourse looks like a unit belonging to a higher level language consisting of related within the meaning of sentences. All syntactic and semantic processes typical levels words and sentences are due to structure of the whole discourse as relatively independent linguistic unit of a higher order. Discourse, however, differs from the lower units of language that he usually does not play like the phonemes and morphemes, but created in a speech [2, c.18].
Among the properties that you can talk about a specific discourse as one higher-level language, you can specify the following:
1. Discourse in its structure differs from all other units of the language from which it is constructed.
2. Discourse has the ability to function as a whole, regular reproducibility (total or partial) in the language.
3. Discourse one language is translated into another language as a whole unit. Where it may be not only the lexical order gaps, but also stylistic gap, ie the absence of the appropriate style in the target language, which requires resort to stylistic transposition.
4. Discourse has linguistic and ethno-linguistic characteristics in the poetic aspect, which is not just rhythm and metric poetic works and their rhymed organization. These include Lingvokulturnye linguo-stylistic and moments that appear at the level of discourse, as well as genre-specific characteristics and different upotrebitelnost discursive models in different linguistic cultures.
5. Discourse has a structural specificity in the language as a model of a situation, and therefore the system can match him some language “Stemm” with a complex structure, with its systemic importance matrix [2, c.30-31].
Based on these definitions of discourse, it may be noted that the discursive aspect of communicative competence means quality using language skills in speech activity, correctness and accuracy in speaking and writing in a foreign language, logic and the information richness of expression, which also means respect for and understanding of another culture.
Formation discursive competence begins with learning a foreign language in shkole.Diskursivnye skills in speech are skills the student logically and coherently organize their own statement in accordance with the grammatical and phonetic structure of a language with its own vocabulary.
Formation discursive competence in oral communication has its own specific caused psychological, psycholinguistic and linguistic characteristics of this form of speech.
The principal aim of speaking in high school is the formation of such language skills that would enable the student to use them in non-academic speech practice at the level of conventional everyday communication [3, p.58].
The realization of this goal is associated with the formation of students’ communicative abilities of the following:
a) understand and produce foreign-language statements in accordance with the specific situation of communication, speech task and communicative intention;
b) exercise their verbal and nonverbal behavior, taking into account the rules of communication, national and cultural characteristics of the country the language is spoken;
c) the use rational methods of mastering a foreign language, to improve yourself in it.
In accordance with the requirements of the program the ability to transmit information connected reasoned statements (speaking and writing) at the senior stage of learning a foreign language is included in the concept of speech competence, which refers to the functional use of the target language as a means of communication and cognitive activity [7, c. 4-8].
Formation discursive competence possible if receptive analytical, reproductive and productive exercises to build skills of all the structural components of discursive competence.
Really effective in the formation of discursive competence may become conditionally speech exercises, if they activate the imagination of students. It is known that the students (especially students of secondary school age) love to fantasize. Therefore, the task of the type “Imagine that …” may not be less useful for learning foreign language linguistic material than real-communicative exercises in which students report, for example, the events of his life.
Educational opportunities for the development of discursive competence in shaping students’ trait is determined by its universal character of discursive skills are applicable to all fields of human activity. Its specificity (goal setting, planning, determination of the optimal ratio of ends and means, etc.) promotes reflection on the level of the usual internal action, it is necessary for professionals in every field, and is an indicator of a mature personality with a high level of consciousness and professional identity. In this context, discursive competence is an important element in the overall educational competence, which is the unity of theoretical and practical preparedness and students’ ability to implement educational activities, willingness and ability to learn throughout life.

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  2. Borbotko, VG Elements of the theory of discourse. Formidable – Univ Chechen-Ingush.University Press, 1981. – 113.
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  4. Kibrik, AA Discourse analysis in the cognitive perspective. - Diss. in the form of a scientific paper Ph.D. - M.: Institute of Linguistics, 2003. – 90.
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