УДК 330

ФАКТОРЫ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО РОСТА

Кувайцев Александр Вячеславович1, Мукминов Рамиль Раисович2
1Димитровградский инженерно-технологический институт, филиал национального исследовательского ядерного университета «МИФИ», студент
2Димитровградский инженерно-технологический институт, филиал национального исследовательского ядерного университета «МИФИ», старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков

Аннотация
В данной статье описаны основные факторы экономического роста. В современном мире преобладает. Экономический рост зависит от ряда факторов. Под факторами экономического роста понимаются те явления и процессы, которые определяют возможности увеличения реального объема производства, повышения эффективности и качества роста.

Ключевые слова: , ,


Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Кувайцев А.В., Мукминов Р.Р. // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2017. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2017/05/82117 (дата обращения: 02.06.2017).

One of the most important long-term goals of the economic policy of the government of any country is to stimulate economic growth, maintain its pace at a stable and optimal level. Therefore, it is so important to have a clear idea of ​​what economic growth is, what factors stimulate it, and which, on the contrary, restrain it. Economic theory develops dynamic models of economic growth that help to study the conditions for achieving an equilibrium rate of economic growth for each country and to formulate an effective long-term economic policy[1].

Economic growth represents a way out of the economy beyond pre-existing production opportunities, moving it to a new, higher level. Economic growth is a component of cyclical economic development[2].

Modern economic growth is a development in which the long-term growth rates of production are consistently higher than the growth rates of the population.

Economic growth is manifested in an increase in real GNP (GDP) over a certain period of time (or in an increase in real GNP per capita). Based on any of these manifestations, economic growth is measured by annual growth rates.

The rate of growth is the ratio of the difference between the real GNP of the current year and the real GNP of the base year to the real GNP of the base year, expressed as a percentage.

Economic growth is measured in two ways. The choice depends on which problem is analyzed or for what purpose[2-3]:

1) as an increase in the real production of the gross national product (GDP) or national income;

2) as an increase in both of them per capita.

There are various classifications of factors of economic growth. The most common and broad of them include two groups of factors.

1. Factors determining the sources of economic growth, i.e. The factors that make economic growth physically possible. They include:

1) availability of natural resources in quantitative and qualitative aspects;

2) the number of labor resources and their qualitative status (educational and qualification aspects);

3) the volume of fixed production assets (capital) and their technical condition (depreciation, productivity, reliability);

4) technology (its novelty, inculcation, speed of its change, effectiveness, payback).

2. Factors determining the degree of realization of sources of economic growth, i.e., limiting factors:

1) degree of completeness and efficiency of use of natural, industrial and labor resources. Effective use of economic resources requires the most optimal distribution among sectors and sectors of the economy;

2) the efficient and equitable distribution of the growing volume of resources and the growing volume of real products. Since aggregate demand is determined by aggregate costs, they need to be increased in order to ensure the full utilization of increased resources;

3) institutional factors constraining or stimulating economic growth. These include: legal norms (labor protection, environmental protection, fighting crime, etc.), morality and traditions, labor conflicts, discrimination, etc.

In general, economic growth can be represented as the result of the impact of two generalized factors together and each individually. This, first, involves more resources and, secondly, more efficient use of resources. And then economic growth appears as the result of multiplying labor costs by its productivity[4].

Also, factors of economic growth can be divided into three groups:

1) supply factors (natural resources, labor, fixed capital, technology);

2) demand factors (level of aggregate expenditures);

3) distribution factors (efficient use of resources).

Despite the importance of the factors of demand and distribution, still the main attention is paid to the supply factors, since they shift the curve of the aggregate supply to the right. These include:

- changes in prices for economic resources;

- changes in performance;

- changes in legal norms.

Investments act as the main regulator of economic growth rates.

Expand production is possible only in two ways: either by increasing the costs of production factors, or by improving technology. With these two ways of economic growth, the strategic directions of economic development are closely linked: extensification and intensification of production[4].

There are two types of economic growth[2]:

1. Extensive economic growth is an increase in the scale of production due to a simple quantitative expansion of the factors of production:

1) increase in the number of employed workers without raising their qualifications;

2) expansion of consumption of material factors of production: raw materials, materials, fuel, land without increasing the efficiency of their use;

3) the growth of capital investments without a corresponding improvement in technology.

At the same time, the average productivity of labor in society does not change:

2. Intensive economic growth is the growth of production due to more effective (intensive) use of cash production factors:

1) expansion of production of material goods and services through the introduction of new, more efficient technologies, through the renewal of fixed assets (means of production), that is, through the introduction of scientific and technological progress in production;

2) improving the organization of production (a new structure of economic ties, management, marketing, cooperation) and, as a result, increasing its effectiveness;

3) improving the use of fixed and circulating funds, accelerating their turnover, accelerated depreciation, etc .;

4) the continuous growth of the qualification of the labor force and the improvement of the scientific organization of labor.

Intensive growth is associated with the use of more sophisticated factors of production and technology, i.e. Is carried out not at the expense of growth of volumes of expenses of resources, and due to growth of their return. It can serve as a basis for improving the well-being of the population.

It is usually said about the predominantly intensive and extensive type of economic growth, depending on the specific gravity of the factors that caused this growth.

The factors of economic growth are grouped according to the types of growth[3-4]:

1) the extensive factors include the increase in the expenditure of capital and labor;

2) to intensive – technological progress, economies of scale, growth of the educational and professional level of workers, increased mobility and better distribution of resources, improved production management (everything that allows qualitatively improve the factors of production and the process of using them).

Reasons restraining economic growth: resource and economic constraints, social costs associated with production growth.

The increase in GNP is determined both by the increase in resources, and by the increase in the effectiveness of their use. The first requires the expansion of the extensive factors of supply growth, the second one is highlighted by the intensive factors of its expansion. At present, intensive factors play an important role in the development of economic growth in developed countries.


References
  1. Экономический рост.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Экономический_рост (дата обращения 01.05.2017).
  2. Factors of economic growth.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://newinspire.ru/lektsii-po-ekonomicheskomu-rostu/faktori-ekonomicheskogo-rosta-2573 (дата обращения 01.05.2017).
  3. Factors of economic growth.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: https://www.inventech.ru/lib/macro/macro-0021/ (дата обращения 01.05.2017).
  4. Economic growth.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://www.aup.ru/books/m202/21_1.htm (дата обращения 01.05.2017).


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