In the context of the overall macroeconomic instability associated with the introduction of economic sanctions against Russia, a low level of oil prices, the ruble against foreign currencies, limitations in attracting credit resources, the socio-economic situation in the Samara region is rather tense [1, p. 83].
Along with the positive dynamics of development of industry, housing construction in a number of industries in decline. Action adverse macroeconomic and geopolitical factors led to a reduction of foreign trade turnover of the Samara region, influenced the slowdown of investment and construction sector. Relatively high inflation has led to a decline in real incomes and real wages of the population, and as a result, consumer demand.
The slowdown of the dynamics of growth of investments in fixed assets, decreased demand for exported goods and services, population consumer activity has led to the contraction of the regional economy demand.
The structure of the region’s economy is quite diversified. The largest volumes of value added in the region are produced in the manufacturing sector (estimated, accounted for 24.8% of GRP in 2015), mining (15.4%), the field of real estate transactions (10.9%), trade (10.7%), transport and communications (8.5%), construction (6%), agriculture (5.3%).
It is estimated that in 2015 the share of investments in fixed assets in the amount of 25.7% of GRP, which will perform the Presidential Decree of 07.05.2012 number 596 “On the long-term national economic policy” in terms of reaching the target value of the indicator (not less than to 25% by 2015).
At present, the development of machine-building enterprises in the Samara region, and in general in the Russian Federation inhibit a number of factors: dependence on imported parts supply, technology, low productivity, high materiale- and energy intensity of production, lack of funding (including R & D) and, as a consequence, the lack of competitiveness of domestic products in the domestic and foreign markets. In this regard, as well as the continuing decline in investment activity production index in the electrical industry, in the manufacture of machinery and equipment is expected to reach 97-98% [2, p.170].
The chemical industry is developing at a rate significantly higher than the overall dynamics of the group of manufacturing industries. In January-August 2015 increased the production of acyclic hydrocarbons (169.6%), fertilizers (113.9%), synthetic rubber (112.6%), plastics in primary forms (103.4%). Significant growth in the industry is provided by the implementation of major investment projects in the largest chemical companies, including with the participation of large petrochemical holdings.
Under the influence of the macroeconomic situation in the industry there is a decrease of orders for its products due to the continued decline in effective demand for non-ferrous metals (aluminum, copper), their products and metal constructions. So, this year at the leading enterprise ZAO “Alcoa – Samara Metallurgical Plant”, which produces more than a third of steel products in the field – a decline in industrial production caused by the decrease in the volume of orders for a press products [3, p.17].
However, at the largest enterprises of the region continues to implement investment projects aimed at the modernization and upgrade of the existing equipment, increase production capacity, improve competitiveness and expand the range of products.
JSC “TYAZHMASH” projects aimed at expanding the geography of sales of products and increase the volume of downloads: copper concentrator Almalyk MMC in Uzbekistan carried out the project “Reconstruction of the offices of crushing and grinding”, successfully completed testing equipment hydro Peshqeshit (Albania), signed a contract with CKD Blansko SMALL HYDRO (Czech Republic) for the supply of new and reconstruction of water turbines in thirteen Slovakia for up to two years. Deliveries of products for special purposes of “TYAZHMASH” carried out on the basis of contracts with the Ministry of Defense of Russia, calculated to 2016. Also, the company continues to work on the production of aggregates for the Baikonur launch complex “East”.
As a result of the implementation of “Samara Stroyfarfor” investment projects to develop the production of stoneware production was put into operation a modern production equipment, which will expand the range of products and to reach a new segment of the market. This year, the company completed the project on its own production of decorative elements (design capacity in 2015 – 500 thousand pieces of decorative tiles per year with an increase of up to 1 million units by 2018..).
Overall, in 2015 the development of the industrial complex of the region will depend on the dynamics of domestic demand mainly. Continue implementation of a package of measures to support the development of the industrial complex of the Samara region, including the development of cluster formations, industrial parks, as well as large investment projects [4, p.109].
Structure of imports of high-tech has a distinct focus – the main share of total imports (66.7%) is the import of equipment. Enterprises in the region consistently pursuing a policy of renewal of fixed assets, including the use of financial instruments of foreign investment. Such import structure is typical for developed Russian regions, which play an important role in the industrial complex of the country.
In 2015, on the development of agro-industrial complex of the Samara region by the regional and federal budgets will be spent 6.3 billion, RUR. State support measures are aimed at the realization of the import substitution policy, increasing the investment attractiveness of the industry, increase agricultural production economy, improving financial and economic condition of agricultural producers in the region, the level and quality of life in rural areas [5, p.193].
In the first half 2015 The region has 112,561 small and medium-sized enterprises, of which 6 741 – small enterprises 40 872 – microenterprises, 483 – medium-sized enterprises and 64 465 – individual entrepreneurs.
In order to support small and medium-sized businesses implementing a state program of the Samara region “Development of Enterprise, Trade and Tourism in the Samara region” for 2014 – 2019 years, and also municipal programs of support and development of small and medium-sized businesses.
By the end of the year, work will continue to provide subsidies to small and medium enterprises at the expense of regional and federalgogo budgets and will be announced new competitions for reimbursement of the cost of payments on leasing contracts; on the creation, development or modernization of production [6, p.150].
It is estimated that by the end of 2015 the number of small and medium-sized enterprises (including micro enterprises) in the Samara region will amount to 112.8 thousand, the average number of workers employed in small and medium enterprises without external part -. 300 thousand people, the turnover of small and medium enterprises – 740.2 billion, rubles.
In 2015, in the Samara region the trend of slowing down of investment activity. This is due to the fact that the investment processes in the region negatively affected by such external and internal factors, such as restricting access to external financing, the rising cost of long-term financial resources, including developers and the population, rise in imports of investment goods, the imposition of sanctions against a number of Russian companies including OAO “Oil company” Rosneft “.
In January – June 2015 on the development of economy and social sphere of the Samara region used 109 666 200 000 rubles of investments in fixed capital, or 102.8% to the corresponding period of the previous year..In January – August of this year, the investment of large organizations of the Samara region totaled 94.2% from the same period of 2014.
Major investments in the Samara region in the first half of 2015 were concentrated in the following economic activities: production of oil products (19% of total investment), manufacture of transport equipment (17.9%), mining (16.3% ), transport and communications (12.6%), energy and real estate activities (by 5.6%). The total share of these industries accounted for 77% of the total investments.
The positive dynamics of investment in fixed assets in the Samara region in the first half of this year, achieved by high growth rates in the following industries: chemical industry (176.6% compared to January – June of the previous year), manufacture of transport equipment (181.8%) including automotive (187.6%) and manufacture of aircraft and spacecraft (143.1%) and oil extraction (136.7%).
The chemical production of “Kuibyshev” implementing major investment projects for the construction of energy-efficient production of cyclohexanone and universal complete line of nitric acid, as well as projects for the construction of the production of ammonia, together with the German company Linde Group and the air separation plant with an American corporation Praxair Inc.
In the automotive industry JSC “AVTOVAZ” in the company’s development programs until 2020, invests in the development, modernization and production of new vehicles and powertrains. Actively build a plant for the production of automotive components in the territory of the special economic zone of industrial type in the municipal district of Stavropol (hereinafter – SEZ “Togliatti”). In 2015, plans to launch its own production of 4 resident of SEZ “Togliatti” – manufacturers of automotive components: Ltd. “This Automotive Rus” (Spain), LLC “High-Lex Rus” (Japan), Ltd. “Atsumitek Toyota Tsusho Rus” (Japan), Ltd. “Edsha Togliatti” (Germany).
However, the first half of 2015 to significantly reduce investment in such important economic activities, such as energy (85.8% of the level of January – June 2014), oil products (80.5%), trade (65.5 %) and agriculture (58.3%).
During the reporting period 2015, the Samara region completed the following major investment projects of private companies:
JSC “Novokuibyshevsk Oil Refinery”, a subsidiary of OJSC “NK” Rosneft “, put into operation a complex of catalytic reforming unit with continuous catalyst regeneration (CCR) capacity of 1.2 mln. Tons a year of raw material and a set of low-temperature isomerization capacity of 280 thous. Tons year on raw materials. Start complexes allowed to ensure a full transition of the enterprise to produce high-octane gasoline higher environmental class and the decommissioning of the obsolete plant;
anchor resident of the industrial park “Preobrazhenka” company “Robert Bosch Samara” completed construction of the first plant for the production of automotive components a total design capacity of 6 million different nomenclature units per year, started production.;
branch “Dairy” SAMARALAKTO “JSC” Company Unimilk “within the Danone group of companies in Russia, the reconstruction of a reception of raw milk, as well as launched a new line for the production of dairy products, drinking and thick yoghurt production capacity 54,8-60 tons products per day;
in the urban district Togliatti Luxembourgish concern Accumalux Group, together with a group of “ACOM” on the basis of “LyuksStar” company opened a new co-production of plastic components for the assembly of buildings batteries. The design capacity of the new high-tech enterprise of JSC “AKKUMALYUKS RUS” is about 2 million. Sets per year.
This year continues active construction of all necessary to place the SEZ “Togliatti” Infrastructure residents. Commissioning of the first phase of the infrastructure area of 181 hectares, started construction of the second area of 246 hectares.
Currently, 16 Russian and foreign companies acquired the status of SEZ “Togliatti” residents. Total liabilities on investments of residents is 18.8 billion rubles is planned to create about 4.3 thousand. New jobs. The first production in the SEZ “Togliatti” started in 2014. Until the end of 2015 plans to launch production of its 5 residents SEZ “Togliatti” 4 companies – automotive manufacturers, as well as the plant LLC “Praksayr Samara” (US) for filling containers of industrial and special gases.
The region is an active process of formation of modern production facilities in the form of industrial parks: in the first stage had actually set up three industrial parks ( “Preobrazhenka”, “Tolyattisintez”, “Stavropol”), and work is underway to fill their residents.
In the industrial park “Preobrazhenka” put into operation the first stage of the engineering infrastructure, carried out design work on the second phase of construction of rainwater drainage and road networks. Residents of the industrial park are OOO “Robert Bosch Samara” (Anchor resident), LLC “EDRC”, LLC “SamaraTransAvto-2000″ of DoorHan company, “Farm SKD” LLC.
In the industrial park “Chapaevsk” made a draft plan area, is preparing to host the territory of enterprises, carried out design and survey works. Started construction of the plant for the production of gypsum binder and plaster mixtures LLC “Knauf Gips Chelyabinsk” (Anchor resident) [7, p.9].
Active work on attraction of extra investments for the construction of socially significant and infrastructure through public-private partnership (hereinafter – PPP). As at 10.01.2015 at various stages of study are 55 projects proposed for implementation with the use of PPPs. By industry sector, these projects relate to the health sector – 29 projects in the field of social welfare – 3 project to the field of sport – 7 projects, tourism – 4 projects, housing and communal services – 1 project, the transport infrastructure – 10 projects in the field of industry and agriculture – 1 project. Of these, 15 are being implemented PPP projects. The total amount of extra investment of more than 9 billion rubles, will create more than 1700 new jobs.
In 2015, the increased role of the own funds of organizations as a source of financing of investment activity. In the first half of the year in the structure of investment in fixed assets, they totaled 65.3% (in January – June 2014 – 62.4%). From sources attracted the largest share was accounted for bank loans (14.6% of all investments) and loan funds to other organizations (5.3%). The budgets of all levels amounted to 4.7% of the investment, more than half of the budget – the regional budget. On investment from abroad accounted for 1.8% of investments in fixed assets.
This year, in the Samara region is expected to grow to attract investments from the federal budget. It is estimated that the volume of investment of federal spending in 2015 could be as high as 18.9 billion in the Samara region, rubles, including the financing of objects of transport, social and other infrastructure SEZ “Togliatti” is expected arrival of federal investments in the amount of 4 billion rubles on the financing of objects of the Samara region and activities within the framework of the federal targeted investment program, state and federal target programs – 7.1 billion, RUR.
Funds from the federal budget are involved for implementation in the region such major projects as the reconstruction and modernization of the international airport “Kurumoch” construction “Entrance to the city of Orenburg” the road from the highway M-5 “Ural” in the section km 96 – km 147, as well as the construction of the stadium (including proektnoizyskatelskie work) in preparation for the world Cup in 2018.
Investment costs of the regional budget in 2015 will amount to 14.9 billion, RUR. A significant amount of the regional budget in the current year will focus on the design and construction of the subway in the city district of Samara, design and construction of residential buildings in the city of Samara in the borders of the streets of Aurora, Dybenko, Revolutionary, Gagarin, design and construction of the Samara Regional Perinatal Center, Avenue reconstruction them. Kirov in Samara City District, the reconstruction of the Moscow highway in the area of Kirov Avenue to station № 115 “Rosneft” in the city district of Samara, which provides access to the stadium being built for the World Cup.
In 2015, the regional budget provides funding of $ 83.4 million. Rubles, design and survey works on the creation of scientific and educational and technical innovation complex in the Kirov district of the city of Samara.
Investing activities in the Samara region in 2015 is carried out in conditions of financial and technological sanctions from the West, as well as a deterioration of the economic situation as a whole, which creates certain difficulties and risks for investors. As a result, after the relatively high investment growth, noted in the Samara region since the post-crisis in 2010, in 2015 is estimated to occur in the region’s investment activity slowdown.Investments are estimated at almost 2014 – 100.8% (in comparable prices). The total investment in fixed assets in the Samara region in 2015 will amount to 320.8 billion, rubles.
The slowdown in investment activity, the rising cost of long-term financial resources to developers and the public has a negative impact on the construction industry in the region. The volume of work performed by the activity “Construction” in the Samara region in January – amounted to 65.6 billion, rubles or 85.0% over the same period in 2014 August, 2015. It is estimated that the volume of construction in the Samara region will not reach last year’s level in 2015 (at constant prices) and was 155 billion rubles – 96.3% in 2014.
For 7 months of 2015 the profit of profitable large and medium-sized companies increased by 34% compared to the corresponding period last year and amounted to 161.2 billion, rubles.
Significant growth in profit in January-July 2015 compared to the same period of 2014 was observed in organizations, economic activities which are transport and communications (3.1 times), chemical industry (2.1 times), food production ( 164.8%), metallurgical production and production of finished metal products (160.2%), agriculture, hunting and forestry (140.7%), wholesale and retail trade (116.4%).
The decline in earnings was observed in organizations engaged in the production of rubber and plastic products (by 40.6%), transport equipment (16.7%), machinery and equipment (by 14.2%), construction (11.5 %), production and distribution of electricity, gas and water (10.6%).
In January – August 2015, retail trade turnover amounted to 377.6 billion, RUR (81.5% compared to the same period last year), including trade in food, beverages and tobacco, 181.1 billion, rubles ( 80.9%), nonfoods -196.6 billion, rubles (81.5%). In per capita retail trade turnover population Samara region took the 4th place in the PFD.
The structure of retail trade in comparison with the same period last year by 2.1 percentage points decreased the proportion of non-food items and turnover amounted to 52.1%.
As a whole for 2015, retail trade turnover is estimated at about 599 billion, RUR index of physical volume of the previous year of 82.5%.
As a result of 8 months of 2015 the positive dynamics was observed in the industrial sector only three out of ten urban districts. Continued industry growth in urban districts Chapaevsk (index of industrial production (hereinafter – STI) among the largest urban areas – 133.6%), Novokuibyshevsk (130.8%) and Zhigulevsk (106.6%).
The negative trend has changed the industrial growth in the city district Syzran (IPP – 97.4%). Continued decline in industrial production in urban districts Togliatti (94.2%) and Kinel (98.0%) due to the decrease in production output of automobiles and automotive components, as well as in gorodskomokruge Samara.
The decisive influence on the dynamics of the urban district Otradny industry (PPI – 99.2%) had negative trends in the development of processing industries, power generation and distribution, gas and water, urban district Pokhvistnevo (98.3%) – a decrease in oil production. The decline in industrial production in the urban district Oktyabrsk due to a decrease in the production of other non-metallic mineral products.
In an unstable external economic situation before the end of 2015 the growth of industrial production can be expected only in the four urban districts: in the city district of Samara PPI was 100.1% (increase in the production of vehicles and equipment, coke and petroleum products, chemical products), in the urban district Zhigulevsk – 105.0% (growth in the chemical industry and the production of electrical and optical equipment in connection with the expansion of production capacities of “Ozone” and CJSC “ACOM”), in Novokuibyshevsk city district – 125.0% (positive dynamics of development of the chemical and petrochemical industry), in the urban district Chapayevsk – 131.0% (an increase of automotive wiring harness production at the new plant ZAO “PES / SCC”).
You can not avoid the fall in industrial production in the urban district Togliatti (IPP – 92.5%) due to negative trends in the automotive industry, as well as the production of rubber and plastic products, other non-metallic mineral products, metallurgical production. In connection with a reduction in the production index in the manufacturing sector, the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water at growth in mining PPI Otradnyi urban district stood at 99.3%.
Negative dynamics in the sectors of steel production and production of finished metal products, machinery and equipment will cause a decline in industrial production in the city district Syzran to 97.5%.
Due to the decline in production of other non-metallic mineral products, spare parts for automobiles, electricity generation and distribution of STIs in the October district of the city will be 95.5%. Despite a possible increase in electricity production and distribution, gas and water, the unstable situation in enterprises automotive component industry will determine the negative trend in the city district of Kinel industry (PPI – 97.0%).The decline in the urban district Pokhvistnevo industry until the end of the year (98.0%) due to the decline in oil production.
In rural areas, the industrial production in January-August 2015 has developed rapidly in 14 of the 27 municipal districts, the highest rate – in the municipalities Krasnoarmeysky (PPI increased by 3.6 times), Bolypeglushitsky (140.4%), Pohvistnevsky (123, 8%), overcome the recession in 2014. Continue to develop dynamically Kamyshlinsky (122.7%), Alexis (120.9%), Kinel-Cherkassy (118.4%) regions. Compared to the same period in 2014 to refract the negative dynamics of the municipal districts of Volga (112.1%) and Kinel- ENGLISH (103.1%).
Do not come out of stagnation last year, municipal districts Klyavlinsky (IPP – 99.4%), Isaklinsky (97.9%), Chelno-Vershinsky (95%), Krasnoyarsk (93.1%), Bor (88.2%), Syzran (84.1%) and Bogatov- ENGLISH (83.9%).
By the end of this year, industrial production is estimated based on the positive trend in 18 of the 27 municipalities.
For six months in 2015 the positive trends observed in the sectors of dairy and beef cattle breeding in 5 municipalities (Bogatovsky, Bolshechernigovsky, Elkhovskoye, Kinel-Cherkassy, Khvorostyanskaya). The greatest increase in meat production in farms of all categories mentioned in the municipal areas of Neftegorsk (138.6%), Shentalinsky (127.1%), Alexis (125.1%), Volga (121.7%), Kinel-Cherkassy (117, 3%); milk – in municipal areas Kinel (135.3%), Bogatovsky (118.8%), Pestravsky (114.1%), Shishnsky (110.4%), Stavropol (110%).
As a result of government support measures, promotion of import substitution and enhancing business activity in the agricultural sector will continue the trend of development for major agricultural variables to the end of the year.
In the I half of 2015 was observed as the investment growth in urban districts and municipal areas. The development of urban districts of large and medium organizations was sent to investment in fixed assets by 12.1% more in comparable prices than in the corresponding period in 2014 – 65.3 billion, rubles (73% of the regional output). The volume of investments has increased in six urban districts: Samara, Tolyatti, Otradny, Kinel, Zhigulevsk and Pokhvistnevo. The implementation of major investment projects in the manufacturing sector and the electricity can save leading positions on volume of investments to per capita urban districts Novokuibyshevsk Zhigulevsk, Togliatti and Syzran. About 70% of all investment spending was directed to the development of processing industries. In structure of investments make up 65% of own funds of institutions, 35% – borrowed funds.
By the end of 2015 the volume of investment growth in fixed assets is expected in Samara (due to the implementation of investment projects and investment budget) and October (at the expense of public investment growth). A significant reduction in the volume of investment is possible in urban districts Novokuibyshevsk and Chapayevsk in connection with the completion of major investment projects and the high level of the previous year.
Against the backdrop of advancing growth of investment activity in municipalities in 2014, the increase in the volume of investment in fixed assets in the whole areas has slowed down and reached 102.8% in the I half of 2015 (24.6 billion, rubles or 27.4% of the regional output) . The positive dynamics of investment was observed in 10 of the 27 municipal districts, the most intense – in the Red Army, Kamyshlinskom, Sergius, Alexeyev, Bolyneglushitskom. In terms of investment per capita leaders were municipal districts Alexis, Bolyneglushitsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Koshkinsky, Kinel. Retains the basic directions of investments in mining, transport and communications. The regional structure of investments accounted for 83.8% of own funds, 16.2% – borrowed funds.
Until the end of 2015 as a whole is expected to stabilize areas of trends in investment while maintaining the differentiation between the territories.
Авторы благодарны Российскому гуманитарному научному фонду за частичную финансовую поддержку данной работы (Региональный конкурс «Волжские земли в истории и культуре России», грант № 16-12- 63003).
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