Modern society in its development passes from one stage to another, higher level of development than it was before. All these steps take place through changes in the economy, politics and social life through the course. Until now it was believed that each science should be developed separately, but experience has shown that science must combine and complement each other. At these stages of their development and also puts economic thinking. How it manifests itself in society? On this question we can answer so, primarily economic thinking is the factor that depends on the particular society. Society is based on the needs of the population. Buyers take their reflection on the economic thinking about this or that target group. It manifests itself not only in the primary needs, but also in the secondary needs of vital economic resources that we use in the home, to create comfort in your life. In the recent past, a cell phone was a luxury for the average person, but now it is a major part of our lives.
In – the second, it manifests itself in social life. Social life is closely connected with the state, with its building of political economy, the income level of the population and social protection of society.
To understand the essence of the expression economic thinking, we look at its history. The development of economic thinking we can be divided into several stages.
The first stage is the ratio of the economic entity to things. At this level, man’s relationship to things is determined by purely subjective desires. Economic thinking at this stage examines the laws of behavior of economic entities in the economic system of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services.
The second stage of development of economic thinking, it is primarily the disclosure of links between the various sectors, individual companies, figuring out how to allocate resources (labor, material, financial, intellectual) spent on the production of many goods and services. This stage is characterized by the presence of all kinds of resources and proportionate distribution. The second level of economic thinking thus disclosed laws economic functioning of the whole system. It is about speaking, the level of microeconomics. At this stage we received its development, such as economic schools as mercantilism, physiocratism.
The first and second stages of economic thinking are reflected in today’s “economy”.
Thinking on these two levels is rational, as operates at the same time all the components of the concepts of “economic system”. It has all the components of functional concepts, ie, It has a definite idea about them without going to its highest stage – the stage of the mind. To move to this stage, you need to think of each of the components of the general notion of the concepts of “economic system” consistent, historically, ie, in its origin, formation, development and disappearance. All of this is provided by the third and fourth stages of economic thinking.
The third step in this phase economic entities reproduce in their minds the laws of development of economic relations systems in the sphere of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of material goods and services. It is, in fact, the area of political economy.
On each of the three stages of thinking any economic relationship receives the appropriate definition. For example, the capital of the first level acts as a phenomenon that encourage economic entity to save and invest money. At the second level capital already it appears as a means of production used to produce income. At the third level capital – is the cost, which produces surplus value, or self-expanding value. Thus every economic relation, speaking in theoretical economy as an economic category and economic law, received on each of the three levels of thinking appropriate definition.
Finally, on the fourth stage in economic thinking played laws macroeconomic forecasting and planning the development of the system of economic relations, the laws of the transition from the spirit of the order to the essence of a higher order.
In contrast to the simple expression economic thinking on the fourth stage it appears as the active side of social consciousness, directly determines the nature of the decisions taken by economic and practical action to implement them. For economic thinking characteristic of scientific realism in the definition of problems and solutions, relying on cost control method, failure of command and administration, aiming to improve the production efficiency and the use of intensive, qualitative factors of growth, given the growing interaction of economic, social, scientific and technical processes. In modern society, economic thinking manifests itself in the ability to correctly assess the trends and prospects of development of social production, the actual developing situation in the industry, the company, to make real and effective solutions to anticipate their consequences. The formation of modern economic thinking – a necessary condition for a qualitative improvement of the economic mechanism, the acceleration of socio-economic development of the country, is an important link in the social consciousness of restructuring at the present stage. It requires decisive overcome outdated stereotypes of thinking prevailing in the previous stage when the prevailing focus on purely quantitative growth and extensive methods of management. The formation of modern economic thinking is based on the continuous improvement of industrial relations in accordance with the needs of modern productive forces, the technical reconstruction of the national economy, his transfer to intensive development. It is very important for the effective functioning of the economic mechanism and coordination of economic interests of the society, workforce, each employee. To people think economically competent, you need to put them in such conditions that the economic thinking was of benefit to them, and be guided by the same ideas – unprofitable.
In economic dictionaries economic thinking is the views and ideas generated by the practical experience of people, their participation in economic activities, links, into which they enter in everyday life.
To date, the following components constitute a profound concept of modern economic thinking:
- Alternatively, it is evident that the need the need to choose one of two or more mutually exclusive options, which are shown in the economic situation;
- Flexibility is mobility, adaptability of organizations and individuals engaged in economic activities, to change conditions; the ability, the ability to quickly change the mode of action of the economic entity. Flexibility in the economy right now is higher than stability;
- The ability to make an accurate forecast of the development of an object or situation. Economic forecasting is the process of developing economic forecasts based on the scientific methods of knowledge of economic phenomena, and using the full range of methods, tools and techniques of economic prognostication;
- Economy – one of the main components of the success of economic activity, which is based in a reasonable and rational saving scarce goods in order to better meet the needs.
- Criticality, a system of interrelated statements and evidence concerning the properties, composition, function, appearance and economic development of critical thinking, as well as its importance in human life
- Planning. The plan is a statement of a well-defined purpose and foreknowledge of specific, detailed the events of the object. It fixed the ways and means of development in accordance with the tasks, justified management decisions. Its main distinguishing feature – the certainty and decision-making tasks. Thus, in terms of foresight receives the highest specificity and certainty. As forecast, the plan is based on the results and achievements of the specific application of the theory.
Modern economic thinking – is, above all, the ability to make rational decisions based on economic calculation, on the account of all the factors affecting the performance. It reflects the economic reality of predominantly rational, rather than emotional way. In the competition, the winning company, which has a maximum volume of sales, profits, and high profitability. To do this, and the need for economic thinking – all subjects of the market economy.
Economic thinking can be divided into two parts, is the economic thinking and economic thinking human society.
Every since childhood to learn something from everyday practice and are constantly expanding their horizons. In this way it is formed everyday economic thinking person. Because it reflects the direct observation of human life, then it has formed a firm belief that what he saw, and has the only true picture of the economy.
Indeed, ordinary thinking can discern and synthesize many essential and typical features of management. That is how there are guidelines, rules of behavior of people in the field of economic activity. A feature of everyday thinking is its subjective nature, because it appears the individual economic psychology. Such a narrow understanding of economic reality is not able to prevent mistakes and errors generated by the lack of awareness of man in the economy, lack of knowledge of the ways of rational, science-based management.
The main factors of the economic thinking of the subject – diverse forms of ownership, in which the subject carries out its activities; other subjects of economic relations, with whom the entity interacts; a variety of interacting entities (enterprises of different ownership forms, banks, investment funds and others.); intensity, quality and specificity polyalternativeness relations; the direction and strength of these relationships and others. The more important are factors of economic thinking, the more profound it becomes the subject of social inclusion in the economic practice, as a result of which the components of economic thinking are objectified and may eventually be included in the scope of economic consciousness.
Today economic thinking society coexists with science, constitutional and traditional structure of society. So, for a better understanding of the economic thinking of the society, we pay attention to its component parts:
- Economic knowledge, theories and practices that have been accumulated over many generations. The scientific knowledge of economic thinking tends to find objective truth. That is to reflect the external world as it exists in reality, from a scientific point of view.
- Economic relations and situations that affect the economy ,. It includes such items as the economic markets, banks, credit unions, which can not do without economic relations.
- Technical potential of the country. Post-industrial society is not to do without technology, equipment is present and in the service and industrial sector.
- The attitude of the population to work. The division of labor gives a greater number of goods and services. A result of these divisions comfortable life of the population.
- The ratio of population to the property. Development of a democratic state in its development are involved in various forms of property.
- A good universal management system. It includes: a system of objectives, ways of development of the country and its management, efficient and growing economy rapidly, simple, clear and accepted by the majority of the population state ideology and a peaceful, friendly coexistence with neighbors
The modern age has its own outlook on life, his economic thinking on relations in situations aimed the process of production, distribution, exchange and consumption. So, theoretically, the economic thinking of the public is a set of economic ideas, associations, ideas, opinions, and knowledge, theory and observation, self-development mechanisms that come as a result of economic relations and patterns of economic development.