УДК 618.3

ГЕСТАЦИОННЫЙ САХАРНЫЙ ДИАБЕТ

Григорян Нарине Самвеловна1, Бешлиев Иса Исмаилович1
1Карагандинский государственный медицинский университет, студент 2 курса специальности «Общая медицина»

Аннотация
В данной статье содержится обзорная информация об одном из типов диабета, а именно: гестационном диабете и его аспектах - причинах, влияния на мать и ребенка, и как не допустить такого состояния. Авторы дают советы, которые помогут избежать либо предотвратить возникновения сахарного диабета у беременных.

GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Grigoryan Narine Samvelovna1, Beshliyev Isa Ismailovitch1
1Karaganda State Medical University, 2nd year student, specialty: “General medicine”

Abstract
The given article includes information about gestational diabetes and its aspects: reasons and influence upon a mother and a fetus, and the way how to prevent from such a condition. The authors here give advices, which can help to avoid the onset of gestational diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, fatigue, fetus, hydramnios, obesity, premature delivery, seizures, waterworks infections


Рубрика: 14.00.00 МЕДИЦИНСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Григорян Н.С., Бешлиев И.И. Gestational diabetes // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2016. № 6 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2016/06/69064 (дата обращения: 02.06.2017).

Diabetes Mellitus  – is a chronic disease, which is characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level.

Glucose is main source of energy for body cells, but to invade the body it needs the special “key” – insulin, which is produced by beta cells of pancreas.

Diabetes Mellitus is developed due to some impairments of insulin work, which make the blood sugar level increase; the overwhelming level of glucose becomes “poisonous” for various body parts and organs and provokes the complications of diabetes.

Normal blood sugar level on an empty stomach- is 3.3 – 5.5 mmol/L. If blood sugar level is over than 6.1 mmol/L, we can speak of Diabetes Mellitus [1].

Symptoms of this disease cannot be specific, and in some cases can be so unexpressed that a patient doesn’t suspect the disease to exist for a long time.

The expressive symptomatology depends on the blood sugar level. Main signs of Diabetes Mellitus:

  • Strong thirst
  • Frequent urination at night
  • Dryness and itchiness of skin
  • Changing appetite
  • Changing body weight
  • Impairment of sense of vision
  • Pains and seizures in legs
  • Fatigue and tiredness
  • Bad healing of wounds
  • Recidivating of waterworks infections

According to medical classification, there are many types of diabetes. Inter alia we can consider: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes.

In this article we will consider the gestational diabetes more thoroughly.

Gestational diabetes appears in the period of pregnancy because of lowered sensibility of cells to their own insulin – it is connected with the high level of progestational hormone in blood. After the act of delivery, blood sugar level returns to normal [2].

Who do women have gestational diabetes?

A pregnant woman, from the 20th week of gestation, has higher insulin level than non-pregnant one does. It is caused by the partially blocked insulin activity, made by other hormones, which are produced by the placenta. Such a condition is called insulin resistance or lowered sensitivity of cells for insulin.  Such response of placenta is called “counter-insulinic” effect and shows symptoms in the 20th -24th weeks of gestation.

Why not every woman has gestational diabetes?

To develop such type of diabetes, a woman should be genetically predisposed to it, alongside with the definite risk factors.

They (risk factors) are:

  • Overweight, obesity
  • Diabetes mellitus at close relatives’
  • Age over 25 years
  • Burdened obstetric anamnesis
  • Hydramnios
  • Gestational diabetes in the previous pregnancy
  • Chronic premature delivery

We are going to consider the peculiarities of gestational diabetes in the first third of pregnancy.

The initial stage of gestation is characterized by enormous hormone changings in a woman’s body. Under the influence of estrogen and progesterone, a pregnant woman experiences a hyperplasia of pancreatic cells, responsible for insulin development. As a result, there is increased development of insulin. In early stages of pregnancy the need in insulin is being lowered, but not for a long time. Then, placenta produces its own hormones, which affect the metabolism of a woman in such a way, which decrease the need in glucose for a woman’s organism. The exceed of glucose should be utilized, which leads to lack of insulin. All these processes lead to unstable sugar blood level at a future mother’s. Glucose can be easily delivered from mother to a child, and insulin doesn’t. If there is exceed of glucose for a fetus, it can lead to prevention of normal formation of his organs and body tissues, provoking malformations. Hypoglycemia can also be deleterious for a fetus – a pregnancy can be aborted spontaneously.

In the first third the hospitalization of a woman is obligatory, as she should be examined by specialists, have corrected diet and get insulin therapy.

The question of bearing possibility should be thoroughly discussed. Not every medicine is allowed to be taken during gestation (for example, antihyperglicemic drugs).  A woman should be informed about that so as not to harm her fetus [3].

Also, lets pay attention to the third third of the pregnancy. The third third of a pregnancy is normally characterized by the increased growth of a fetus, gaining weight, formation of all organs and tissues.

When having acute form of gestational diabetes, a fetus of a woman may have strong deleterious effect, leading to fetal growth retardation. When there are no vessel impairments in mother’s and hyperglycemia is always present, a fetus may be large but malformed.

Such women are recommended to be hospitalized beforehand so as to prepare for the act of delivery.

It is associated also with the gestational complications of infections, hydramnios, gestational toxicosis.

There can be progressive impairments of vessels, which affects the sense of vision, heart and kidney work at mother; as well as other organs.

Having studied the abovementioned information, we came to the conclusion that to avoid gestational diabetes and its consequences for a mother and a fetus, a woman should:

  • To make blood test for the presence of saccharine disease
  • To keep on a healthy diet – to consume less quantity of sugary products and food rich in glucose
  • To experience easy physical exercises, specially developed for pregnant women and discussed with a doctor
  • To monitor blood sugar level monthly and change the quantity of sugar intake according to blood test results
  • Seek medical advice, when having one of listed symptoms

If gestational diabetes is gone after act of delivery, don’t forget about the fact that you have resistance for insulin in your body tissues. Keep on following your condition.

*The author wants to thank the supervisor T.G. Dashkina for the help in investigation and preparation of the article.


References
  1. http://mama.ru/articles/saharnyi-diabet-beremennyh
  2. http://iberemennost.ru/trimestry/tajny-pervogo-trimestra
  3. http://diabet-med.com 


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