Contemporary social-economic situation, the falling of living standards and environmental problems negatively affect the health of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan, especially the health of younger generation.
The main cause of children’s health deterioration and the sharp decline of moral and spiritual state of students is low sanitary culture, the lack of basic hygiene practices and irresponsible attitude towards their health.
It is emphasized in the message of the President “Kazakhstan-2030” (in the 4th long-term priority. “Health, education and prosperity of the citizens of Kazakhstan”): “Our strategy towards this goal comprises the following components: preventing diseases and promoting healthy lifestyle. It needs informational and educational company in favor of healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition, the rules of hygiene and sanitation” .
In recent years, demographic indices have got worse, birth rate and natural increase of population have reduced, the level of morbidity and mortality has increased, and particularly the health of children and young people makes us uneasy. More than 2 million children and teenagers are at the dispensary on the chronic diseases. Studies which were conducted in schools, have established that 85% of students have chronic diseases.
It is established according to the data of the Institute of Physiology of children and adolescents that if pupils of the 11th form have physiological deviations in health by 30%, then these deviations reach 80-85% to the 10th-11th form. “School anxiety” is registered by 67% of pupils. It is expressed in aggressiveness, depression and other reactions what causes decreasing in body’s resistance of pupils, immune system suffering, what leads, in its turn, to the increasing in mortality among children.
Cigarettes, alcohol, drugs and toxic substances, early sexual activity are widespread nowadays. According to the National Centre for problems of healthy lifestyle, more than 40% of teens smoke, up to 39% – occasionally use alcohol, 17% – try drugs, up to 41% come in early sex. In this regard, the number of sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS among children and adolescents has increased in ten times. The number of births and abortions among adolescents is high (more than 9 thousand abortions a year).
In the transition to the market economy with multi-structure medicine, knowledge, skills and observation of preventive measures, formation of healthy lifestyle are the main attributes in health preserving and promoting. They have social value and require active strategy to encourage children’s and young people’s healthy lifestyle, their social adaptation and responsibility for maintaining their own health, as well their motivation for health needs.
The main idea of the Concept of healthy lifestyle in the continuous education system is ensuring the development of physical and mental health of younger generation what will be an important component of humanistic philosophy of education that one needs for solving the problem of understanding the value of every human life in the general system of the universe.
The contents and forms of healthy lifestyle formation are based on the following principles:
- the principle of humanistic orientation, which includes responsible attitude towards own health;
- the principle of scientific basis, which implies the use of modern methods of healthy lifestyle and scientific ascertained and proved facts;
- the principle of ecologization and accounting of environmental factors impact on human organism;
- the principle of cultural conformity, which is based on universal values, and takes into account local traditions and the mentality of the indigenous population;
- the principle of continuity, which implies healthy lifestyle promoting preschool educational institutions to further postgraduate education;
- the principle of socialization, which includes skills from acquiring of social adaptation and self-actualization.
Acquired by pupils knowledge of healthy lifestyle will be reliable support in health maintaining of future citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
- The strategy “Kazakhstan 2030”. Prosperity, security and ever growing welfare of all the Kazakhstanis. Message of the President of the country to the people of Kazakhstan. – Astana, 2007. – 35 p.