UDC 94(3); 903.65; 903.7; 903.62; 903.63; 903.6; 930.85; 930.2; 902.6; 003.32; 003.322; 51; 519.72; 519.63; 539.18

LONG AND CURVED AVENUE BETWEEN STONEHENGE AND AVON RIVER SYMBOLIZE THE BODY OF EGYPTIAN GODDESS NUT. CURSUS SYMBOLIZE UNDERGROUND WORLD DUAT OF ANCIENT EGYPTIANS

Zlobin Andrei Evgenyevich
Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Ph.D., mathematician

Abstract
This paper contain short description of next step of investigation of the author concerning ancient monument Stonehenge in Great Britain. The author suggests explanation of Avenue and Cursus which are positioned near Stonehenge. The explanation is given from position of Egyptian mythology. Long and curved Avenue between Stonehenge and Avon River symbolize the body of Egyptian Goddess Nut. Cursus symbolize underground world Duat of ancient Egyptians. Also the author describes possible religious performances during midsummer sunrise and sunset, which are connected to mythology of Egyptian God Ra. In accordance to Egyptian mythology Avenue and Cursus symbolize ways of God Ra (Sun) in his boat during daylight and at night. In addition some notes are included concerning hydraulic technology of manufacturing of Stonehenge. In accordance to Arthurian legends, there is confirmation of origin of Stonehenge from Africa. The author continue to think about some common ancient knowledge connected to megalithic monuments.

Keywords: Abydos, ancient, archaeoastronomy, archeology, astronomy, Atum, avenue, Avon, basin, channel, civilization, Cursus, Egypt, egyptology, England, gateway, God, Goddess, Great Britain, hieroglyph, history, hydraulics, irrigation, mathematics, megalithic monuments, Moon, mythology, Nile, Osiris, Pharaoh, priest, scribe, shadoof, solar, stone, Stonehenge, Sun, temple, university, water


Category: 07.00.00 History

Article reference:
Zlobin A.E. Long and curved avenue between Stonehenge and Avon River symbolize the body of Egyptian Goddess Nut. Cursus symbolize underground world Duat of ancient Egyptians // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2019. № 3 [Electronic journal]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/en/issues/2019/03/88867

View this article in Russian

The paper is devoted to Antonov family

This paper continue description of my study concerning Stonehenge. For the first time I described some results in English in 2015 [Zlobin A.E., 2015]. Now I’d like to add several conclusions which takes into consideration Egyptian mythology with more detailes. I obtained a lot of new data which are based on my mathematical analysis of Stonehenge. Below I gives explanation of curved Avenue between Stonehenge and Avon River from position of Egyptian mythology. Explanation of Cursus is given too. This short paper is my first announcement concerning Egyptian significance of Avenue and Cursus.

I already mentioned Egyptian Gods in my first paper concerning Stonehenge [Zlobin A.E., 2015]. To my mind the name of well-known Egyptian solar God Atum was written in Stonehenge with the help of rebus and mathematical formula simultaneously. Moreover, ancient phrase “Eternally living Atum” was written in Stonehenge. Also I noted in Stonehenge some Egyptian symbolism which corresponds to mythology of God Osiris. Now I describes symbolism of Egyptian Goddess Nut. These examples indicates that Egyptian mythology seems presented in Stonehenge considerably wide.

If to say about Avenue, astronomical theme must be mentioned first of all [Lockyer, N.J., 1906], [Hawkins, G.S., White J.B. 1966]. The fact that directions in Stonehenge are connected with positions of Sun and Moon gives us hint concerning sky. Let us remind, that in accordance to Egyptian mythology, ancient Egyptians were considering sunrise as birth of Sun by Goddess Nut [Montet P., 1946]. After birth in the morning, God Ra (Sun) was sailing in his boat along the body of Goddess Nut, who symbolized the sky. A lot of ancient images of Goddess Nut are known where she looks like woman with curved line of body. Also we know images of God Ra who is sailing along the sky in his boat, and the sky looks like Goddess Nut with stars on her body. In accordance to Egyptian mythology, Goddess Nut swallowed Sun in the evening. At night, after sunset, Sun was traveling through underground world. Next morning the birth of Sun was repeated etc.

Now investigation of Stonehenge nearest area is in progress by archaeologists, see for example [Pearson M.P. et al., 2008], [Gaffney, C. et al., 2012]. Below I delivered image of Stonehenge nearest area with some my explanations from position of Egyptian mythology (Fig.1). Let’s look at the curved form of Avenue. If to draw image of Goddess Nut near Avenue we can see very good correspondence between these two forms. Foots of Goddess Nut are placed near the entrance of Stonehenge. Hands of Goddess Nut are directed to the coast of Avon River. Middle part of Avenue line symbolize body of Goddess Nut. The line from Stonehenge along legs of the Goddess is directed to stomach, where Sun is born during midsummer sunrise. Head and hands of the Goddess are directed to the place of Avon River’s coast, where midsummer sunset is visible in direction to Stonehenge. This place symbolize swallow of Sun by Goddess Nut. Without doubt there is accurate Egyptian symbolism of Goddess Nut.


Fig. 1. A.E.Zlobin - Explanation of Stonehenge nearest area in accordance to Egyptian mythology. Daily traveling of God Ra (Sun) along the body of Goddess Nut and traveling of Sun through underground world Duat at night

Also I suggests clear interpretation and explanation for the Cursus, which is placed some northern from Stonehenge. Thin blue additional lines indicates that Cursus may symbolize the boundary between sky and underground world (Fig.1). Ancient Egyptians named this underground world as Duat. In accordance to mythology of ancient Egyptians, western point of Cursus indicates entrance of Sun into Duat, and eastern point of Cursus looks like outlet of Sun out of Duat. It is necessary to note, that Avenue and Cursus demonstrates their similar significance. This significance is the way of God Ra (Sun). In case of Avenue, it is the way along the sky. In case of Cursus, it is the way along underground world. There is wonderful correspondence to Egyptian mythology concerning traveling of God Ra in daylight hours in special daylight boat and traveling in night hours in special night boat. This mythology is described by M.E.Matie in her book [Matie M.E., 1996]. In the morning, near eastern outlet from underground world, God Ra changes his seat from night boat into daylight boat. In the evening, near western entrance to Duat, he changes his seat from daylight boat into night boat. The moment when God Ra changes his seat from daylight boat to night boat is shown at Fig.2 [Matie M.E., 1996].


Fig. 2. Sun changes its seat from daylight boat into night boat [Matie M.E., 1996]

I’d like to note some another analogies which connect Stonehenge with ancient Egypt. If to take into consideration description of Egyptian mythology by M.E.Matie [Matie M.E., 1996], the Cursus simultaneously symbolize Underground Nile River where God Ra travel during night hours. I not exclude religious analogy between Avon River and Egyptian Nile River too. We know that ancient Egyptians were considering Nile River as sacred object. Egyptian religious performances often were connected with Nile River too. To my mind, all Stonehenge nearest area was used for religious performances. It seems logical to imagine Avenue of Stonehenge as water way and channel for sailing of God Ra in his boat during celebration of midsummer sunrise. In this case, the logical connection between Stonehenge, Avenue and Avon River seems considerably strong. This religious performance was able to begin in Stonehenge in the morning during sunrise. In Stonehenge priests prepare real boat and the man whose role is God Ra. During all the daylight the boat with God Ra is moving along Avenue channel simultaneously with motion of Sun across the sky. Ancient people welcome God Ra along all Avenue. Religious sense of this celebratory performance is birth of Sun by Goddess Nut and motion of Sun along the body of Goddess. In the evening the boat of God Ra is arriving to Avon River where Goddess Nut swallow Sun. Thus Egyptian mythology concerning sunrise and sunset is demonstrated completely. Similar religious performance seems possible at night in Cursus. The difference is in night dark time and underground way of Sun. I think night religious performance in Cursus was the continuation of mentioned religious actions after sunset. There is a lot of similarity between mythology of God Osiris in Stonehenge [Zlobin A.E., 2015] and religious performances in Egyptian place Abydos every year [Korostovtsev M.A., 1976]. It is well known that Abydos was the center of God Osiris cult. I think it is clear explanation of many tombs near Cursus.

River and water were important things for Egyptians not only from position of religion. These things were important as the base of irrigation and hydraulic technologies. Force of water is able to lift giant weight if to know methods of hydraulics. In my previous paper concerning Stonehenge [Zlobin A.E., 2015] I described hydraulic technologies which could be used for manufacturing of this stony temple. It was shown that man-made basins were used for this purpose. Lifting of giant stones in Stonehenge was produced with the help of woody rafts and pontons. Devices for lifting of water level like shadoof were used in this case. Images of shadoofs are well known in ancient Egypt (Fig.3). Certainly deep holes were necessary for positioning of posts for shadoofs. Traces of these holes we can see in Stonehenge till now [Atkinson R.J.C. 1991],[ Wood J.E. 1978].


Fig. 3. Watering of a garden in ancient Egypt with the help of shadoof devices [Savelyeva T.N. 1976]

Water gateways were necessary for rafts and pontons and for control of water level in basins. Possible regions are shown with red color in Fig.4 where gateways were placed. I not exclude, that these gateways were used later not only for manufacturing of Stonehenge but also for religious performances. May be the boat of God Ra was sailing through these gateways too. Also levels of three manmade basins are shown at Fig.4 with three shades of blue color. More deep blue color corresponds to more high level of water in basin. Three levels of water were necessary for gradual increase of altitude of stones lifting. Hydraulic technologies explain size of many elements of Stonehenge. In accordance to T.N.Savelyeva, Egyptians used shadoof for lifting water up to 2 metres of height [Savelyeva T.N. 1976]. That is why three levels of man-made basins were necessary for manufacturing of Stonehenge and lifting of lintels. These three levels are marked with holes X,Y and Z for placing of three circles of shadoofs. That is why Circular Bank around Stonehenge was produced with approximately 2 metres of height. Circular Bank and the same man-made basin was the first level of water. Second basin and second level of water was approximately 4 metres of height. Third basin and highest level of water was approximately 6 metres. Size of lintels was approximately 1 metre of high. Therefore, biggest Trilithons in Stonehenge were produced with approximately 7 metres of height (2+2+2+1=7 metres).

Fig. 4. Gateways (red) and levels of three man-made basins in Stonehenge

Now I have not any doubt that Stonehenge was built with the help of Egyptian knowledge and technologies. To my mind some Egyptian citizen or citizens supervised manufacturing of Stonehenge. In Stonehenge we can see not only traces of Egyptian technical devices but even Egyptian mythology and Egyptian hieroglyphs. I am sure that works of archaeologists will give us new important information concerning history of Stonehenge and nearest area. May be the history of mankind more difficult for understanding than someone think. Stonehenge open new page of this history and a lot of new discoveries seems possible.

It is wonderful when ancient legends of England confirms the idea of Stonehenge origin. These confirmation is good visible in Arthurian legends. As mentioned by G.S.Hawkins and J.B.White, in accordance to these legends the origin of Stonenenge is connected to Africa [G.S.Hawkins, J.B.White, 1966]. Also hieroglyphs in Stonehenge [Zlobin A.E., 2015] are in good correspondence to method of decoding by J.-F.Champollion, who was the founder of Egyptology [Champollion, J.-F. 1822]. The language of Stonehenge is the language of Egyptian priests and scribes. I continue to develop Egyptian vocabulary of Stonehenge [Zlobin A.E., 2015] and this vocabulary is the key to most sacred mythology and knowledge of ancient Egyptians. Sacred mysteries of Egyptian Gods are hidden in ancient Stonehenge. I hope not only Egyptology will help investigate Stonehenge, but Stonehenge will help to understand history of ancient Egypt with more detailes and more accurate. Is there anybody who know contribution and influence of ancient English people on civilization of ancient Egypt too? Is there explanation of all megalithic monuments from position of some common ancient knowledge?

References

1. Atkinson R.J.C. 1991, Stonehenge and Neighbouring Monuments. English Heritage. Fourth impression, London.

2. Champollion, J.-F. 1822, About Egyptian hieroglyphic alphabet. Translation, edition and comments by Lifshits I.G. [in Russian]. Publishing house of Academy of Sciences of USSR, Leningrad. 1950.

3. Gaffney, C., Gaffney, V., Neubauer, W., Baldwin, E., Chapman, H., Garwood, P., Moulden, H., Sparrow, T., Bates, R., Löcker, K., Hinterleitner, A., Trinks, I., Nau, E., Zitz, T., Floery, S., Verhoeven, G., Doneus, M., 2012, The Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project. Archaeological Prospection. Volume 19, Issue 2, April/June 2012, Pages: 147-155.

4. Hawkins, G.S., White J.B. 1966, Stonehenge Decoded. Published by Souvenir Press, London. Translation by Gurov P.S. with edition by Gurshteyn A.A. [in Russian]. “Mir” Press, Moscow, 1984.

5. Korostovtsev M.A. 1976, Religion [in Russian] / Culture of ancient Egypt Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Nauka Press, Moscow, 180-222.

6. Lockyer, N.J., 1906, Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments Astronomically Considered, Macmillan, London.

7. Matie, M.E., 1996, The elected studies on mythology and ideology of ancient Egypt [in Russian]. Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. Eastern Literature Press (RAS), Moscow.

8. Montet P. 1946, La vie quotidienne en Egypte Aux temps des Ramses Hachette. Paris. Translation by F.L.Mendel’son. “Nauka” Press. 1989. [in Russian]

9. Pearson M.P., Pollard J., Richards C., Thomas J., Tilley C., Welham K. 2008, The Stonehenge Riverside Project exploring the Neolithic landscape of Stonehenge / Documenta Praehistorica XXXV. December. pp.153-166.

10. Savelyeva T.N. 1976, Material culture of ancient Egypt. Irrigation and agriculture [in Russian] / Culture of ancient Egypt Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Nauka Press, Moscow, 45-89.

11. Wood J.E. 1978, Sun, moon, and standing stones. Oxford University Press. Oxford, London, New York. Translation by Gurov P.S. with edition by Gurshteyn A.A. [in Russian]. “Mir” Press, Moscow, 1981.

12. Zlobin A.E. 2015, The most ancient theory of Atom. Stonehenge is distant Egyptian solar temple and ancient University // Modern scientific researches and innovations. 2015. № 10 [Electronic  journal]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/en/issues/2015/10/58057

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