УДК 004(038)

РЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ ПРИНЦИПА ПРОЧНОСТИ УСВОЕНИЯ ЗНАНИЙ В ЭЛЕКТРОННЫХ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫХ РЕСУРСАХ

Балалаева Елена Юрьевна
Национальный университет биоресурсов и природопользования Украины
Киев, доцент кафедры журналистики и языковой коммуникации

Аннотация
В статье рассматривается проблема реализации дидактического принципа прочности усвоения знаний при использовании электронных образовательных ресурсов. В частности, описаны как положительные стороны реализации этого принципа в электронных средствах учебного назначения, так и дидактические риски, сопряженные с ним.

Ключевые слова: дидактические принципы, принцип прочности усвоения знаний, электронные образовательные ресурсы


THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DURABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE’ PRINCIPLE IN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

Balalaieva Olena Yurievna
National University of Life Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Kyiv, Associate Professor of the Department of Journalism and Linguistic Communication

Abstract
The article deals with the problem of implementing the didactic principle of the durability of knowledge in terms of using electronic educational resources. In particular, both the positive aspects of the implementation of this principle in e-learning tools and the didactic risks associated with it are described.

Keywords: didactic principles, electronic educational resources, principle of the durability of knowledge


Рубрика: 13.00.00 ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Балалаева Е.Ю. The implementation of the durability of knowledge’ principle in electronic educational resources // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2019. № 8 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2019/08/89937 (дата обращения: 08.02.2020).

The progress achieved in recent years in the implementation of electronic textbooks and manuals in education causes the need for scientific substantiation of the didactic principles of their design and use in the educational process. Researchers have repeatedly drawn attention to the fact that the didactic principles (scientific character, conscious and active participation of students in the education process, accessibility, durability, connecting theory with practice, visualization, etc.) are implemented in electronic learning tools at a qualitatively new level due to the capabilities of modern information and communication technologies.

Consider some features of the realization of the principle of knowledge durability concerning electronic learning tools.

One of the criteria for conscious learning is a durability of knowledge. According to S.V. Goncharenko, the durability of knowledge, skills, and abilities is a didactic principle, which implies the thorough learning of the educational material, stable fixation in the students’ memory, free reproduction and application in practice. Such learning makes it possible to acquire new knowledge successfully [3, p. 212]. Knowledge is stronger than more conscious is students work, more varied the supply of visual images and vivid examples, more connections were established between facts and phenomena.

I.P. Podlasii emphasizes that the durability of learning the material depends not only on objective factors – it’s content and structure but also on the subjective student’s attitude to this material, training, and teacher [4, p. 248].

To ensure the effective implementation of the principle of the durability of knowledge and skills in the educational process, the following requirements are formulated by modern researchers:

- to memorize educational material in conjunction with the previously studied stuff;

- repeat educational material by structural-semantic parts;

- highlight the main, leading ideas when repeating;

- intensify the independent work of students;

- use the associative links of the new material with the already well-known, well-learned;

- constantly refer to the previously acquired knowledge to deepen them [6].

According to researchers, the requirement for the durability of knowledge as applied to electronic educational resources gets a new sound. For the sound knowledge, the most important is a deeper understanding of the material, its dispersed memorization, which causes the need for multiple reviewing, repetition and revising learned material.

Due to using electronic textbooks and manuals, it becomes possible to organize multiple repetitions as diverse activities, to increase the variability of controlled individual learning tasks [1].

The requirement to ensure the durability of learning outcomes involves ensuring student’s learning of the content, internal logic and structure of training material provided by the programmed pedagogical tool. This requirement is achieved by the implementation of self-control and self-correction; providing control based on feedback with diagnostics of errors by results of learning, evaluation of learning outcomes, explaining the essence of the error made, testing academic achievement [5, p. 23].

At the same time, the new capabilities of electronic educational resources not only make it possible to ensure the implementation of the principle of durability at a qualitatively new level but also significantly increase the didactic risks of its implementation.

We interpret didactic risk as a predictable characteristic of the potential learning situation, which may arise during the introduction of a new didactic tool and have a negative impact on the learning process; the probability of negative impact of innovative tools on the learning process (negative impact, in this case, is interpreted as an action that does not lead to positive changes in student’s training, development of his personality or intensification of the educational process) [7].

Didactic risks could associate with all components of the learning process: target, content, stimulating and motivational, operational and activity, control and regulatory, evaluation. Thus, didactic risks can be combined with the content of training, teaching process (the activities of the teacher) and learning process (activities of the student).

Didactic risks of implementation of the principle of knowledge durability are determined by the inability to adequately assess the level of achievement using electronic educational resources. Computer testing does not always enable to qualitatively evaluate the structure and effectively measure the level of knowledge, skills and abilities. E-learning tools, as a rule, are focused on typical correct and incorrect answers in standard situations; take into account the result, not the course of solving the problem; cannot appreciate a non-trivial, irrational view of the problem [2].

Another aspect that can entail the didactic risks in sound knowledge acquisition using electronic tutorials is to accustom students to the determination of their learning activities with the help of guidance systems, open steps for solving problems, and various teaching impacts. An excessive assistance, guaranteed support for learning activities and operations, easy access to information deprives students of the need to think deeply and memorize the training material.

Researchers believe that the higher expression of consciousness in learning is a successful application of knowledge in practice, the ability to analyze the phenomena of life based of the acquired theoretical knowledge.

At the same time, it is known that the greatest difficulty is the transition from information circulating in the system of learning to independent professional activities, in other words, from the sign system as a form of presentation of knowledge on the pages of the textbook or display screen, etc. to the system of practical actions having fundamentally different logic than the logic of the organization of the system of signs.

This classic problem of applying knowledge in practice, the problem of transition from thought to action is greatly exacerbated in terms of computer training. Many researchers in the problems of didactics believe that the ability to interpret is the main evidence of understanding and conscious learning of the material. And therefore, in studying various disciplines, there is a need for a systems of questions, tasks, and exercises for interpretation (which are hard to be programmed and almost never encountered in electronic educational resources).

Taking into consideration of these requirements in the design of electronic educational resources could minimize the didactic risks of implementing the principle of the durability of knowledge.

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References
  1. Балалаева Е. Ю. Электронные ресурсы для изучения латыни // Психология, социология и педагогика. 2014. № 4. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://psychology.snauka.ru/2014/04/2978.
  2. Балалаєва О. Ю. Фасетні класифікації електронних засобів навчального призначення // Інформаційні технології і засоби навчання. 2013. Т. 38, вип. 6. С. 41–52. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://journal.iitta.gov.ua/index.php/itlt/article/view/926#.U105yqJ0ImQ
  3. Гончаренко С.У. Український педагогічний словник. К.: Либідь,  1997.
  4. Подласый И.П. Педагогика: в 3 кн.: учеб. для студ. вузов, 2-е изд. испр. и доп.  М.: Владос, 2007.  Кн. 2: Теория и технология обучения.
  5. Роберт И.В. Современные информационные технологии в образовании: дидактические проблемы; перспективы использования. М.: ИИО РАО, 2010.
  6. Чайка В.М. Основи дидактики: навч. посіб.  К.: Академвидав, 2011.
  7. Balalaieva O. Yu. Design of Electronic Textbooks in Latin Language for Higher Agricultural Educational Institutions. Ph.D. in Pedagogy. Kyiv, Institute of Information Technologies and Learning Tools of NAPS of Ukraine, 2016.


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