УДК 32

АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УПРАВЛЕНИЯ. ПРОБЛЕМЫ КОРРУПЦИИ

Газиева Асият Зайрбеговна
Дагестанский государственный университет
Факультет управления; кафедра ГиМУ, магистр первого года обучения

Аннотация
Коррупция буквально разъедает систему государственного управления.
В этой статье мне бы хотелось затронуть именно эту тему - тему коррупции. Некоторые ее факторы, а так же немного интересных фактов из истории России.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION. THE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION

Gazieva Asiyat Zairbegovna
Dagestan State University
First year master’s degree student, Department of State and Municipal Managemen

Abstract
Corruption literally corrodes the government administration system.
In this article I would like to raise the topic of corruption. The following covers some of its factors, as well as a few interesting facts from the history of Russia.

Keywords: commercial bribery, corruption, economy, executive, factors of influence, government, government administration, historical examples


Рубрика: 23.00.00 ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Газиева А.З. Actual problems of government administration. The problem of corruption // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2018. № 4 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2018/04/86321 (дата обращения: 16.04.2018).

In today’s world, especially in Russia, there are a number of problems in state and municipal government.

Government administration is practical and organized in regulating influence in the state on the social life of people with the purpose of ordering, preserving or transforming it, all based on domineering power. The determining factor of ensuring rationality, i.e. the appropriateness, validity and effectiveness of state administration is sociality – the fulfillment of state management with public demands and expectations and the real life of people.

The main organizational problems of government administration in modern Russia includes:

1. Unprocessed legal and regulatory support of government administration, especially in terms of power, specifics of state authorities, relationships, both between authorities and the relationship of state authorities with its citizens.

2. Authoritarian methods of management. The managerial spirit and environment have developed in a command-based economy, to some extent the methods remain the same today. New organizational formats do not correspond to the old content of management relations in the government apparatus.

3. The rise of power in the country has not been inadequately calculated, many questions on interaction of federal and republican (subjects of the Russian Federation) management authorities remain disputable. In most of these cases, society and the whole population is at a loss. In this  environment, federal, republican and regional authorities get an excellent opportunity to avoid their responsibilities by shifting their mistakes and failures to each other.

4. There is significant levels of insufficient education and qualifications of government employees. Many of the employees do not have a professional education in their field of work, although the level of importance, responsibility and requirements in the public administration system unequivocally require and demand this. Moreover, it is not uncommon for government employees to have no higher education at all!

5. Corruption.

So, firstly, let’s define what the word corruption itself means?

In literal translation from the Latin language, the word “corrumpere’ means “corrupt,” and “corruptio” means “corruption” or “bribery.” The general definition of which was formulated based on this interpretation. Speaking about corruption, in a broad sense it is understood to be the abuse by officials with the rights and powers entrusted to them, relating to their official status of opportunities, authority and available connections for their personal gain. This behavior is contrary to the moral and ethical standards and legal norms.

Corruption is the abuse of an official position by an employee, in the receiving of or the giving of a bribe, commercial bribery or any other unlawful use by a citizen of his status, contrary to the interests of the country and society. This behavior is aimed at obtaining benefits that can be expressed in the form of a value, money or other things and objects, services or property rights for themselves or others. These acts can also be committed in the interests of either on behalf of legal entities.

This is a problem is both in sight and in hearing – the media almost every day brings down on us all the most intriguing information about corruption. And at the same time there is some mystery in this phenomenon. On the one hand, we are all well aware of it, especially about the corruption of the ruling elite. On the other hand, the absence of real trials over the declared corrupt officials allows us to regard this phenomenon as almost a myth. i.e., in this respect, there is some kind of “unity of opposites”: corruption exists (according to media sources) and there is no corruption (according to the results of law enforcement).

Historical examples

The roots of this social phenomenon goes back to the deep past. This is evidenced by individual facts, quoted in the Bible, which, according to modern concepts, can be fully assessed as a manifestation of corruption. I will give only two quotes: “Your princes are backsliders and accomplices of thieves, they all love presents and chase after the bribes”; “Woe to those who justify the guilts for gifts but deprive the rights of the rightful ones”.

In Russia, the emergence of corruption as a social phenomenon is also associated with the emergence of statehood (IX-X cc.). S.M. Solovyov in his “History of Russia since ancient times” cites facts of persistent struggles against such a corruption crime as bribery, for example, even of Ivan Grozny and Peter I. The latter tried to fight this iniquity by instituting cruel punishments (punishment by a whip, hard labors, death penalties). However, as V.O. Klyuchevsky, under Peter I, embezzlement and bribery have reached a size not experienced before. During the reign of Nikolay I, the size of embezzlement and bribery in Russia has grown even more. For example, A.S. Pushkin published in his works the problem of embezzlement of those closest to the supreme power, so to speak, of the royal entourage. A deep analysis of this aspect of Russian statehood was made by the poet in his notes “On the Russian history of the XVIII century” with reference to the reign of Catherine II. “The reign of Catherine II had a new and powerful influence on the political and moral state of Russia. Built on the throne by a conspiracy of several rebels, she enriched them at the expense of the people… in time history will appreciate the influence of her reign on morals… treasury plundered by lovers… Catherine was aware of the rogues and committed robberies of her lovers but remained silent. Encouraged by such weakness, they did not know the measure of their self-interest, and even the most distant relatives of the temporary lover greedily used his brief reign. Outside these, huge estates of completely unknown surnames and the complete absence of honor and honesty in the upper class of the people occurred. From the Chancellor to the last logist, everyone stole and everything was corrupted. ”

The Soviet authorities also tried to fight this evil. In the time of the Khrushchev thaw, even the death penalty was introduced for aggravated circumstances under the aggravating circumstances. It should be noted that in that era, corruption was managed to be limited and introduced in an acceptable way.

A mechanism of bribery of government employees in the society, this thesis is spread that all the evil of corruption lies in the bribe-takers, in the government employees and in the office-bearers: “all officiaries are thieves and bribe-takers, and the bribe-giver is their victim, forced to give a bribe” (the original Russian proverb “Wheels don’t run without oil, no silver, no servant”). Yes, this situation occurs quite often. Especially in the sphere of small and medium businesses. Some researchers provide statements of entrepreneurs that they are forced to pay a bribe for each occasion, which requires any kind of coordination with the executives (most often for approvals in the local government). In this respect, one can say that corruption is reproduced almost every minute, since an officiary, using his “legal” right (or rather, gaps in it), always distributes something or redistributes and always at his discretion decides whether to allow or not to allow any action. And the wider the “legal” limits of the officiaries discretion, the more opportunities for them to receive bribes.

Causes of corruption

Economic factors – they are quite varied. Nevertheless, economic miscalculations should be brought to the fore in the formation of market relations and, particularly, the privatization methods and methods chosen during the reforms. We refer to only one indicator: the ratio of the estimated, real and selling prices of privatized developments. So, in the mid-90′s. of XX century approximately 500 of the largest developments of the country were privatized, their fixed assets were estimated at $200 billion. The State Property Committee sold these developments for $7.2 billion. It can be said with a very high degree of certainty that such understatement of the real value of the objects of denationalization presupposed a gigantic self-interest of employees in the management sphere, as well as their merging with the “grey” (“underground”) economy and other elements of the criminal world.

   Political factors – they are even more diverse. But the main ones are the following:

  • A) An unreasonably large number of managerial staff: over the years of reforms the administrative apparatus grew 1.5 times and it is 15 million people (the proportion of managers in the total number of employees in the field of personnel management in the UK is 2%, in Russia – 25%), and the whole “army” exists to coordinate, visualize, resolve, license, quote, etc., etc.;
  • B) The lack of effective parliamentary control over the state of corruptness of the highest state officiaries;
  • C) An increasing number of the representatives of the criminal world in government institutions, including organized criminal groups and criminal communities (“out of 450 newly elected deputies were in the operational development of the domestic special services before their election)”.

Psychological factors:

  • A) Centuries-old traditions of bribery in the government services;
  • B) A comparatively low level of legal knowledge of the population, placing it in conditions of deep dependence on government officiaries;
  • C) The psychological readiness of a significant part of the population to bribe government officiaries for the realization of both legal and illegal interests;
  • D) The phenomenon of mutual guilt of bribe-taker and bribe-giver.

Ways to solve the problem

Despite the importance of the legal warfare against corruption, it seems that the most effective legal resources for preventing it are not only a criminal law, but decrees provided by constitutional, administrative, financial, banking and entrepreneurial law. It is necessary to have such laws that would make it impossible to commit many of the corruption crimes. It can could be a special procedure for submitting a declaration of income not only for the officiaries themselves, but also their close relatives, and prohibiting the registration of civil-law transactions not under their own name, and the prohibition to occupy posts in combination (under the contract), especially in foreign organizations, institutions and enterprises, and the prohibition for several years to work in private firms (organizations, institutions, enterprises) after retiring from the government service, if by nature the latter officiary was associated with such private organizations. Violation of these rules should entail unconditional dismissal of a person from the government service. It is necessary to fundamentally change this situation, even if it is not going to be easy and quick.

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References
  1. Современные проблемы государственного и муниципального управления https://www.scienceforum.ru/2015/1225/13612
  2. Коррупция в России http://isfic.info/ugkurs2/naumov112.htm
  3. Что такое коррупция? Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 25 декабря 2008 г. № 273-ФЗ «О противодействии коррупции» https://www.syl.ru/article/206460/new_chto-takoe-korruptsiya-federalnyiy-zakon-rossiyskoy-federatsii-ot-dekabrya-g–fz-o-protivodeystvii-korruptsii
  4. Григорова Т. В. Коррупция в России: сущность, причины возникновения и социально-экономические последствия, 1999 г.
  5. Симония Н. Особенности национальной коррупции // Свободная мысль – XXI, 2001 г.


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