УДК 338.2

ТАМОЖЕННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ БУДУЩЕГО: 10 ИННОВАЦИОННЫХ СПОСОБОВ НАЙТИ ВЗРЫВЧАТКУ

Саушкина Екатерина Олеговна
Западный филиал Российской академии народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации
студентка 2 курса

Аннотация
Международный терроризм стал одной из главных проблем для современного общества. На плечи таможенников и сотрудников аэропортов ежедневно ложится колоссальная ответственность – простая ошибка и невнимательность могут привести к смерти сотен человек. Хотя провоз взрывчатки несет в себе огромный риск, далеко не каждая таможня уделяет этому должное внимание. Чаще всего для её поиска используют обученных служебных собак или, что бывает реже, проводят выборочный досмотр пассажиров. Однако существуют и другие более прогрессивные и надежные методы, изобретенные учеными.

CUSTOMS TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FUTURE: 10 INNOVATIVE WAYS TO FIND EXPLOSIVES

Saushkina Ekaterina Olegovna
Western Branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation
student

Abstract
The strategic goal of the customs service is to increase the level of economic security, create favorable conditions for attracting investments in the economy, full income, protection of domestic producers, protection of intellectual property and maximize the promotion of foreign trade activities on the basis of improving the quality and efficiency of customs administration. But international terrorism has become one of the main problems of modern society. On the shoulders of customs officers and airport employees every day lies a colossal responsibility - a simple mistake and inattention can lead to the death of hundreds of people. However, there are other more progressive and reliable methods invented by scientists.

Keywords: customs, innovative ways, of the future, technologies, to find explosives


Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Саушкина Е.О. Customs technologies of the future: 10 innovative ways to find explosives // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2017. № 12 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2017/12/85224 (дата обращения: 09.06.2018).

The strategic goal of the customs service is to increase the level of economic security , create favorable conditions for attracting investments in the economy, full income, protection of domestic producers, protection of intellectual property and maximize the promotion of foreign trade activities on the basis of improving the quality and efficiency of customs administration.

But international terrorism has become one of the main problems of modern society. On the shoulders of customs officers and airport employees every day lies a colossal responsibility – a simple mistake and inattention can lead to the death of hundreds of people.

Although the transportation of explosives carries a huge risk, not every customs give due attention to this. Most often for its search use trained service dogs or, that happens less often, spend selective customs inspection of passengers. But over time, these methods are becoming increasingly unreliable – the modes of transportation are being improved, and they can`t be fought with the usual methods. For example, the Israeli counterterrorism expert David Harel published a note in 2013 on liquid explosives, which impregnates the passenger’s clothes. In the dried state it can`t discover, but at any kind of ignition, such clothing provokes an explosion.

However, there are other more progressive and reliable methods invented by scientists.Thus, one of the most innovative methods of detecting explosives that can be used or already used by the control authorities of different countries are:

1. The SEACAP program

The United States has become a locomotive in the development of technologies for the detection of explosives. One of the most successful and already working methods was the SEACAP program – a technology for contactless customs inspection, in which explosives can be found if it is hidden on the body or in human clothes, using passive waves in the millimeter range. The tests were carried out on a busy and frequently used ferry for passengers,who were boarding the Staten Island ferry from the St. George’s terminal on the New York island of Staten.

The customs inspection equipment was set up in such a way as to examine each person at the time of his passing through the turnstile into the landing waiting zone. At the same time, passengers weren`t asked to stop or slow down the traffic. The image from the turnstile arrived at the monitors of the security guards, and if there were any anomalies on it, a suspicious passenger could be taken to the express inspection room.

Since this technology does not imply obtaining an image of the body as a whole, violation of the rights of citizens to privacy does not occur during the operation of the equipment.

2. Sensory mini-chip for viewing explosives

A group of scientists from the University of California at San Diego created a miniature sensory chip, it can traptraces of hydrogen peroxide, which is used not only for medicinal purposes, but also in the manufacture of homemade explosives. A supersensitive sensor can find the highest minimum concentration of such vapors in the air. The principle of the device is that with the help of thin plates of metallic phthalocyanines, the sensor monitors changes in electrical conductivity in the air. With the appearance of oxidation agents in air, the current on the plates varies – on cobalt decreases, and on copper and nickel increases, after which the sensor gives a signal.

3. Aerosol EXPRAY

Another group of Californian scientists developed a no less progressive method. Chemists from the University of San Diego created spray pellicle that are able to detect even small remnants of traces of nitrogen-based explosives that is left on the hands or clothing of an attacker. Contaminated fingerprints will leave dark marks on the pellicle that glow blue under the influence of ultraviolet rays. One of the developers pellicle can recognize even different classes of explosive chemicals, this property can allow you to obtain evidence when disclosing crimes or to prevent them.

The detection method is based on the use of fluorescent polymers developed by professor chemistry and biochemistry UCSD William Trogler and his graduate student Jason Sanchez. Polymers with ultraviolet radiation emit blue light. At the same time, nitrogen-based explosives, when in contact with it, absorb electrons and extinguish this radiation.

The very method of detection was not only very convenient, but also fast. A thin film is sprayed onto the hands or other suspicious surface, and traces are visible after the solvent has dried – after only 30 seconds.

4. X-Tracer 

In 2009, a company from St. Petersburg, “Laser Systems” developed equipment that is able in just two seconds to find even a small trace concentration explosive on the hands, document or clothes. They may not be visible to the human eye, but can remain on the surface for up to several days.

The inspected object is placed to the optoelectronic sensor, which then analyzes the object and transfers information to the computer monitor about the presence of explosives and their composition. The system can detect minimal traces (up to 100 nanograms) and determine the main types of explosives (TNT, hexagen, dinitrotoluene, ammonium nitrate).

As the developers themselves note, the device can work independently or as part of other security systems, and can also be widely used together with a fingerprint reader or passport and visa control.

5.Gate for the discovery of explosive and narcotic substances SENTINEL II 

Concern Smiths Detection has developed a unique security system that allows to 100% guarantee to find traces of explosives and drugs. This is a non-contact scanning system, which is a gate where particles of matter and vapors are gently removed from the clothes and the body of an air stream. A person leaves the gate, and then, during the analysis, the system passes the next person. Within a few seconds, the results are displayed on the monitor and can easily be deciphered by security personnel. “Intelligent” gates allow you to miss 7 people per minute and can find more than 40 types of explosives and drugs.

6. Ionized Particle Motility Analyzers (IMS) 

IMS analyzers measure the mobility of ions and can even see tiny quantities of explosive. The essence of the method is that the suitcase of the passenger at the airport is wiped with cotton wool, which is then put into the analyzer. Using the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) method, it detects the presence of an explosive.

7. Laser technology

Physicists from Scotland have also created a technology that can find the smallest particles of explosives. A laser sensor, created at the University of St Andrews, can find their molecules even in concentrations of less than 0.001 ppm. To find them, the device needs less than 20 seconds.

The principle of the new technology is that the polyflorene plastic compound,  when exposed to light, starts emitting small laser beams. Molecules of explosives, if they are in the range of rays, begin to absorb light. As a result, it is possible not only to determine the presence of this substance, but also to calculate its quantity. As noted by one of the developers Dr. Graham Turnbull, this technology can be used in crowded places, at customs inspection passengers and baggage, as well as in other areas.

8. Flying SpectroDrones 

Thanks to the development of technology, flying drones and robots can now perform many tasks that are potentially dangerous for humans. The Israeli company Laser Detect Systems (LDS) has created flying drones that can detect explosive substances, improvised explosive devices, as well as drugs, minerals and some other biological substances from a height . In the drone is a whole system of various electro-optical mechanisms, laser rangefinder, camera, spectrometer and other devices. The main achievement of inventors is that earlier to detect these substances the sensor had to be located at the minimum distance from the substance. SpectroDrone, in turn, emits laser beams of different wavelengths and is able to recognize explosive materials in any form – in solid, liquid, gaseous form or powder, and can also analyze the substance in real time.

9. Nanosensors based on bee venom 

A new achievement in countering terrorists is the invention of scientists from the famous Massachusetts Institute of Technology, headed by Dr. Michael Strano. Scientists have inflicted proteins from bee venom to carbon nanotubes, which represent are coiled into the cylinders of a plane of layers of graphene.

Such a non-standard solution was didn`t accidental, since the proteins that are contained in the bee venom turned out to be hundreds of times more sensitive than many gas analyzers to compounds containing nitrogen and in particular trinitrotoluene. Even if its even its individual molecules fall on the protein of the poison,occurs the physical and chemical characteristics change and the wavelength of the emitted light changes. This process immediately records a special microscope and sensor, and very quickly – during the passage of the alleged offender through the frame at the airport.

10. Sensitive plants to an explosive

A team of American geneticists, led by Professor Jun Madford, is trying to create plants that can react to the presence of explosives. To do this, they modified the natural mechanism of plant protection so that it reacts to  necessary irritant by changing the color of the foliage.

Scientists worked with arabidopsis and tobacco, changing the receptor protein in the cell walls of the plant. The plant had to incorporate a protective mechanism when it would feel the presence of explosives in the environment like a water and air contaminant.

With the help of computer scientists have calculated how to change the natural proteins, and then made genetic modifications by methods of genetic engineering. Trinitrotoluene was chosen as a signaling substance. Even the first generation of tobacco in his presence began to turn pale for several hours. However, scientists have not yet figured out how to speed up this process and how to return the original color to the leaves.

Technologies are an integral part of the modern customs policy. Their use increases the quality of customs control, simplifies and speeds up the process of declaring goods as much as possible, contributes to improving the investment climate in the territory of the state, creates favorable conditions for participants in foreign economic activity. In modern conditions without the use of technology, it is almost impossible to make customs clearance fast and transparent.

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References
  1. Custom Technology Solutions for Education [http://www.custom-technology.co.uk/]
  2. ПроВЭД [http://xn--b1ae2adf4f.xn--p1ai/custom-house/national/41038-tamozhennye-tehnologii-budushtego-10-innovatsionnyh-sposobov-nayti-vzpyvchatku.html]
  3. ФТС [http://customs.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21&Itemid=1820]


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