УДК 504

CОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ

Кувайцев Александр Вячеславович1, Мукминов Рамиль Раисович2
1Димитровградский инженерно-технологический институт филиал национального исследовательского ядерного университета «МИФИ», студент
2Димитровградский инженерно-технологический институт филиал национального исследовательского ядерного университета «МИФИ», старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков

Аннотация
В данной статье кратко рассмотрим основные глобальные экологические проблемы. Современная техногенная цивилизация, помимо увеличения степени бытового комфорта, привела к стремительному ухудшению экологической ситуации в мире. Со временем испорченная цивилизацией экология может привести к катастрофическим последствиям.

Ключевые слова: иностранный язык, проблемы., экология


MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Kuvaytsev Aleksandr Vyacheslavovich1, Mukminov Ramil Raisovich2
1Dimitrovgrad Engineering and Technological Institute of the National Research Nuclear University MEPHI, student
2Dimitrovgrad Engineering and Technological Institute of the National Research Nuclear University MEPHI, senior lecturer faculty of foreign languages

Abstract
In this article, we briefly review the main global environmental problems. Modern technogenic civilization, in addition to increasing the degree of household comfort, led to a rapid deterioration of the ecological situation in the world. Over time, the ecology ruined by civilization can lead to catastrophic consequences.

Keywords: ecological problems, foreign language, modern


Рубрика: 03.00.00 БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Кувайцев А.В., Мукминов Р.Р. Modern environmental problems // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2017. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2017/05/81770 (дата обращения: 02.06.2017).

The environmental problems of the present are mainly related to anthropogenic influences, which are understood as activities related to the realization of economic, recreational, military, cultural and other human interests, which introduces changes in the natural environment. They can be positive and negative, long and short-term, purposeful and spontaneous, point and area, long and short-term, as well as global, regional and local. Among the main global environmental problems of our time, scientists identify the following: “greenhouse effect”, depletion of the ozone layer, “acid precipitation”, the problem of waste disposal, environmental pollution, desertification, soil degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, decline in numbers and extinction of animals, change Climate, depletion of natural resources, morbidity of the population, photochemical smog and others[1-4].

The greenhouse effect is the warming up of the lower layers of the atmosphere due to the ability of the atmosphere to pass short-wave solar radiation, but to delay the long-wave thermal radiation of the earth’s surface. The atmosphere almost entirely transmits the radiation of the Sun to the Earth, but because of the presence of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, freon, nitrogen oxides, etc.) in the atmosphere, the reverse thermal radiation of the earth’s surface is significantly delayed. Greenhouse gases formed like a glass greenhouse roof over the planet, and most of heat emitted from the earth returns. Thermal energy accumulated in the surface layers of the atmosphere the more intense, the larger they concentration of greenhouse gases. The negative consequences of the greenhouse effect for mankind are the increase in the level of the World Ocean as a result of melting ice, the increase in the amount of precipitation, the change in the direction of winds, ocean currents, rising temperatures, warming of the climate, etc. An increase in seasonal thawing of soils in areas with permafrost will create a threat to structures, roads , communications, activates processes waterlogging and t. d. However, a temperature rise of 1-2 ° C in general will be favorable for agriculture European hour and our country, as it will allow to grow heat-loving crops over vast areas. In December 1997, an international conference on global climate change on the planet, which was attended by representatives of 159 countries was held in Kyoto. The agreement was adopted, which provides for an overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%[2].

Acidic precipitation. Acid call any precipitation (rain, fog, snow), the acidity of which is higher than normal. The acid properties of the medium are determined by hydrogen ions. The greater the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution, the higher its acidity. The units of the hydrogen index, or pH, are used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions. The pH scale contains values ​​from 0 (extremely high acidity) through 7 (neutral medium) to 14 (extremely strong alkalinity). Acid rain contains solutions of sulfuric, nitric and other acids into which the moisture of air is converted, absorbing sulfur dioxide and other gases contained in the air. Acid rain inhibits vegetation, reduces forest growth and crop yields, is the cause of acidification of lakes, which leads to the death of eggs, fry, plankton, algae and fish. Negative effects of acid rain are recorded in the US, Europe, Canada, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other countries.

Destruction of the ozone layer. The ozone layer is an atmosphere layer with an increased ozone content. The concentration of ozone in the layer is very low, and if we separate it in pure form and compress it to the density that air has at the surface of the Earth, then the thickness of the ozone layer does not exceed 5 mm. Ozone absorbs short-wave radiation of the Sun, protecting living organisms from its harmful effects. For the first time depletion of the ozone layer attracted the attention of the general public in 1985, when a large area with a low (up to 50%) ozone content, known as the “ozone hole”, was discovered over Antarctica. It is believed that the main reason for the appearance of “ozone holes” is the significant content of Freons in the atmosphere. Freons (chlorofluorocarbons) are highly volatile chemically inert substances on the earth’s surface that are widely used in production and life as refrigerants (air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerators), sprayers (aerosols), blowing agents. Freons, rising to the upper layers of the atmosphere, undergo photochemical decomposition with the formation of chlorine oxide, which intensively destroys ozone. However, a number of scientists continue to insist on the natural origin of the “ozone hole”. The reasons for its occurrence are seen in the natural variability of the ozonosphere, the cyclic activity of the Sun, the processes of degassing the Earth, etc. Ozone depletion leads to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation on the Earth’s surface, which increases the incidence of skin cancer, a decrease in the productivity of crops, slowing down the process of photosynthesis In plants, etc[1].

The problem of waste disposal. Waste – unused balances of raw materials, materials, semi-finished products, other products and products formed in the process of production or consumption and lost their consumer properties. According to the aggregate state, the waste is divided into liquid, solid and gaseous. By origin, waste is classified into household (municipal), industrial, agricultural, construction, radioactive, etc. The most serious environmental problems are associated with hazardous waste containing substances that have one of the dangerous properties (toxicity, explosiveness, infectiousness, fire hazard and Etc.) and are present in an amount that is hazardous to human health and the natural environment. There are four classes of waste hazard: the first – substances (waste) are extremely dangerous, the second – substances (waste) highly dangerous, the third – moderately dangerous, the fourth – low-risk.

Waste is a source of pollution of atmospheric air, underground and surface waters, soils and vegetation. Initially, the solution to the problem of wastes was seen primarily in their destruction – incinerating or burning, but with increasing environmental pollution, more environmentally acceptable waste management measures – sorting and reusing them, ie recycling, and using low-waste technologies – came to the fore. Low-waste production is considered such that the harmful impact on the environment does not exceed the level allowed by sanitary and hygienic norms, while a part of raw materials and materials are transferred to waste that are sent for processing or disposal. Minimization of waste in various industries can be achieved by the following methods: improvement of technological processes towards reducing the amount of waste generated; Waste recycling, preferably in the process of their formation, processing of waste into useful by-products; Reduction of volumes and toxicity of waste to facilitate subsequent disposal and processing[3].


References
  1. Top 10 Environmental Issues Facing Our Planet.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://planetearthherald.com/top-10-environmental-issues/ (дата обращения 25.04.2017).
  2. List of environmental issues.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_environmental_issues (дата обращения 25.04.2017).
  3. Global problems of our time.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://greenologia.ru/eko-problemy/globalnye.html (дата обращения 25.04.2017).
  4. Global environmental problems.[Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://www.grandars.ru/shkola/geografiya/globalnye-ekologicheskie-problemy.html (дата обращения 25.04.2017).


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