The literature of Turkic people original, rich, historically endless literature in the completely literary world. Poet-writers who came from Turkic language people, added many-faceted contribution to the world literary treasure. It is enough to mention Chyngyz Aytmatov’s name from Kyrgyz literature; Muhtar Auezov’s name from Kazakh literature; Berdy Kerbabaev’s name from Turkmen literature; Mustai Karim”s name from Bashkyr literature; Rasul Gamzatov’s name from Avar literature; Ziya Samidi’s name from Uygur literature and others. Therefore, Turkic language speaking people’s literature is considered polyphonic, exotic one from ideological-thematic point of view.
One of the ancient Turkic nations – Uighur people’s culture and literature includes “Garip and Sanam”, which was the head of folklores and art, which has been growing from ancient times. In the history, theirs appreciable melodious, popular kariz, diversified treatises, which were written in old Uygur language, prove that fact, they are ancient people by a number of searchers who were interested in it deeply.
Time passed, centuries have changed, Uighur literature’s period was developing constantly, and now in universities of Turkic language countries , for instance, in Kyrgyzstan, the subject “Turkic language speaking people’s literature” is conducted, including Uygur poet-writers’ too. The interest of young generations is caused by images of creative people, especially Abdulhalik Uygur, Lutpulla Mutallip, Bilal Azizi, Abdurehim Otkur. Moreover, they developed modern Uygur literature during the period of Soviet Uygur literature.
“20.Yüyzilinda baslarinda dünyada ceryan eden degisiklere parallel Dogu Türkistan Uighur Edebiyati esarete, yülme, cehalete karsi mücadele dalgalandirildi. Bu edebiyatin bazraktarligini büzük mücahid alim ve yazar Adülkadir Binni Abdulvaris Azizi, gazeteci yazar Kutluk Sevki, mücahid sair Abdulhalik Uighur, Sair ve egitimci Mehmet Ali Tefikler yapti.” [1.18]- as the researcher Mahmut Kashgarli wrote, that the first part of XX century the poets, which are mentioned above, were fighting for the independence of their nation with poems, in which they gave their own opinions and during the fight with unfairness, they stood against unjustice with the help of their labour and also with power of words. Of course, we can come across with such actions in some sources, where the type of period, conditions of life, unjust attitude were required.
The 1930-1940s of XX century, were the years for young poets’ creativity, who wrote poems on the ideal-thematic features, thinking about their nation’s future, taking care of the nation, endeavoring for patriot soul and new achievements. In 1921-year in Turfan, the following strokes were written,and quickly distributed among people
Ey fakir Uighur, Uyan uykun yeter,
Sende mal yok, simdi gitse can gider.
Bu ölümden kendini kurtarmaysan
Ah!…Senin halin hater, halin hater.
Kalk dedim, basini kaldir…Uzkunu ac!
Rakibin basini kes, kanini sac!
Göy acip etrafina izice bakmasan,
Ölürsun armanda bir gün, zo ilac! [1.22]
The author of the poem „Uyan“ („Wake Up“) Abdulhalik Uygur (1896-1932) who was shown as scholar in A. Narynbaev’s works, made them wake up those who were afraid of calling them Uighur, encourages to fight the people, who used pseudonymous “Uygur”. The poet was educated and knew Arab, Farce, Mongol, Chinese, Russian languages, was an intelligent. On his way abroad with his father’s trade, for example after having seen Russia, he analyzed conditions of local people, and familiarized the ways against inequality. From that, when he came back to his motherland and to his nation, he saw bad conditions of Uighurs, and poet stood against them with both ways, in other words, with weapons and words. In parallel with Abdulhalik Uygur, his compatriot Mehmet Ali Tevpik (1901-1937) also in his poem “Kalkin gidelim” challenged his nation against for unintelligence:
Kalkin gidelim düsmani kovalim,
Nadanliklara karsi duralim.
Mars mars haydi arkadas.
Gösindeki atesini sac. [1.30] – he wrote.
Injustice punishment, people’s stagnated condition, lack of new methods of teaching, such as advanced people of society A. Uighur, L. Mutallip, B. Azizi, Nim Shehit, M. Tevpik were oppressed, they expressed their inside regrets, interior torments through poems, and in my opinion, their efforts were not in vein. Mehmet Ali Tevpik paid attention to Patriotic morale of poets and parallel to educational publicity, he opened new modern schools. He had built schools in Artush and in a few villages, and created his poet “Biz-muallim”.
Biz-Muallim! Yurtlarda mektep aciyoruz,
Halkimiza günes gibi nurlar sacizoruy.
Uyun yillar zulmette kalip har olduk,
Ilim-irfan zoluna biy tek entizar olduk.
Bizim yürüdügümüz yol saadet yolu,
Biz vatanin yeniden acilan gülü. [3.21]
The poet is seemed to express his likeness for education, school, and through of this, includes the opinion of finding solution that young generation of Uighurs must get education, wake up, fight for independence of their nation. Poet’s “Okudu asti”, “Kurtulus yolunda”, “Vatan icin” inner contemplating is very strong.
Alongside above-mentioned poets, we have to mention Lutpulla Mutallip’s (1922-1945) name. Because, L. Mutallip is well-known poet for the whole East Turkestan, Central Asia. The poet looked to the life with another point of view, as an active person. For formation of special literal point of view, his teacher poet-democrat, educator, journalist Anvar Nasiri’s role was also great. He shaped his loving feelings of freedom, critical point of view from the poets of Alisher Navoi, B. Nazim, Abdulla Tokay. Moreover, he learned Russian language due to understand revolutionary ideas of Chernyshevskiy, Plehanov, Lenin’s fictions and writings. He reached his goal, and wrote articles such as “Pushkin – is prominent son of Russian people”, “Mayakovski – is the flag of the soviet union”.
Chinese government was afraid of the poet’s dignity and did not command to kill him, but he was exiled to Aksu. Nevertheless, an exile could not stop the poet’s ideological fighting, conversely it heightened. He worked in “Aksu magazine” and was able to write a lot of poems, and gave his opinions sub textually:
… Nevayi gömülmüs degil topraga,
Yüregi sigmiyor, alem gibi mezara.
Ruhu semada Allaha ulasizor,
Onun mezarini sazfalarda ara,
Türbesini misralarinda ara, [1.45]
Lutpulla Mutallip felt that he would die and tried to give his opinions in his poems. In reality, in spite of the his death , he left as an inheritance his poets, literature and the art studies, literal articles, aphorisms, which nowadays we are still studying.
As a conclusion, 1930-1940-years Uygur poets: A. Uygur, L. Mutallip, M. Tevpik, N. Shehit and others’ poetry was strong from ideological side which was spread among the people, and in fighting for freedom theirs’ name were briefly mentioned. Those above mentioned poets were young in their early ages; they sacrificed their lives for their nation, for freedom. Thematic orientation of the poets’ literary works were for the legitimate of freedom, liberty, struggle, patriotism, enlightenment, and developing of culture.
- Kasgarli Mahmut. Cagdas Uygur Turkleri’nin Edebiyati. – Ankara. -1998.-p.88
- A. Narynbaev. Izbrannye proizvedeniya.– Bishkek -2004
- Erkin Emet. Cagdas uygur siir antolojisi. –Ankara, 1998.-p.56