УДК 658.512.4

РАЗРАБОТКА СТРУКТУРЫ APQP-ПРОЦЕССА НА ОСНОВЕ МЕТОДОЛОГИИ «УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ПРОЕКТАМИ»

Гудкова Светлана Анатольева1, Шазамова Наталья Александровна2
1Тольяттинский государственный университет, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры «Теория и практика перевода»
2Тольяттинский государственный университет, студентка 4 курса, группа «Управление качеством», кафедра «Менеджмент организации»

Аннотация
Создание новой продукции проходит в процессе подготовки производства. Подготовка производства и производственный процесс протекают параллельно друг от друга. Главная задача подготовки производства - разработка проекта, создание и организация выпуска новой продукции. Чтобы разрабатывать новые проекты, нужно правильно управлять ими. В мире уже давно признано, что управление проектами - особая область менеджмента, применение которой дает ощутимые результаты.

Ключевые слова: график, матрица ответственностей., метод, перспективное планирование качества продукции (APQP), план, планирование, процесс, разработка, управление проектами


DEVELOP THE STRUCTURE OF THE APQP PROCESS BASED ON THE METHODOLOGY OF «PROJECT MANAGEMENT»

Gudkova Svetlana Anatolyevna1, Shazamova Natalia Aleksandrovna2
1Togliatti State University, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor of the chair «Theory and practice of translation»
2Togliatti State University, student 4 course, group "quality Management", Department "Management of organization"

Abstract
The creation of new products is in the production preparation process. Preparation of production and manufacturing process taken place depend independently from each other. The main task of production preparation is project design, creation and production of new products. To develop new projects, you need to properly manage them. The world has long been recognized that project management is a special area management. It is application of brings yields tangible results.

Keywords: Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP), development, matrix of responsibilities, method, planning, process, project management, schedule


Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Гудкова С.А., Шазамова Н.А. Develop the structure of the APQP process based on the methodology of «Project Management» // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2017. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2017/03/79752 (дата обращения: 28.03.2017).

Project management is the special area management that has been recognized, the application of which yields tangible results. The project management methodology has become a de facto management standard in many companies and is used in varying degrees in almost all major corporations.

The transfer from the hone-managerial implementation of projects to the well-organized management allows us to leave permanent failure or the postponement of the completion of work, breaking technology, constant funding problems, irregular work schedules, late or missed opportunities of work [1].

Project management is the process of planning, organizing and managing tasks and resources, aimed to achieve a certain goal, usually in terms of restrictions on time, resources or work cost [2].

The uniqueness of the products or services of the project determines the need for consistent specification of their characteristics, upon completion of the project.

The project plan can be simple. However, even when implementing the most simple of the projects Manager has to face a number of unforeseen factors (sometimes random), leading to a lack of time to complete the project or to the lack of material means.

Anyway, the leader of any project should be ready for the fact that at some step between the initial plan and the actual situation will arise some discrepancy. Therefore, one of the main tasks of project management is the timely correction of the original plan, and with the least overhead [2].

In the course of the development of the structure of the APQP-process-based “project Management” should be the following tasks:

- compliance with Directive terms of completion of the project.

- rational distribution of material resources and performers between the objectives of the project, as well as in time;

- timely correction of initial plan in accordance with the real situation [3].

These three tasks are closely linked, and insufficient attention to one of them will inevitably lead to problems in two other ways. For example, poor distribution of resources will certainly cause the deviation from the planned dates of completion of the project, and the inability to adjust the original plan can negate all the work done.

For the project to be successful, its implementation should include three main phases:

– The formation plan.

– Monitoring the implementation of the plan and management of the project.

– The completion of the project.

In order to avoid the mistakes of subjective evaluation it would be better to compare with the objective results obtained using the corresponding methods, it has a sufficiently rigorous mathematical justification. We are talking about the methods of network scheduling and the project management [3].

Plan and schedule determine what, who and when to do it. The allocation of time to develop carefully thought out plan is crucial to achieve the objectives of the project.

The process of detailed development plan and schedule includes:

- identification of specific activities or actions required to implement the project and distribution responsible for their implementation;

- define sequence of performance of selected activities;

- rank of the time required to complete each activity;

- project scheduling.

Planning is a systematic organization of tasks that contribute to achieving the goals presented in the plan. Plan to become the point of reference relative to which to measure the success of the project. If in practice there are deviations from the plan, it is necessary to take corrective action [4].

The first stage of the planning process is to define the objectives of the project: the expected result or the desired end product. The project objective is usually defined scope of work, timetable for implementation and necessary expenses, in other words, it requires perform a specific job on time, within budget to the specified torque. Ideally, the goal of the project should be clearly and explicitly stated at the beginning of the project.

The next step is identification of elements or actions that make up all the work that must be performed to achieve project objectives. To do this, using the following approaches, it is necessary to make a list of all elements or actions. The first approach is to use the project team brainstorming method and as usually used when working on projects. The second approach is to use the method of structure partitioning works. The method allows the structure partitioning works to break the project into separate components controlled in order to ensure identification of all items of work required to implement the project fully. The structure partitioning works is a hierarchical tree of actions that will be performed by the project team during project implementation [5].

The next step after a detailed definition of all works is their visual display in a network diagram showing the proper sequence of their execution and their relationship. Method of network planning is useful in the development of plans and schedules and in monitoring projects.

Therefore, based on the developed reference manual and reporting forms necessary to implement the APQP process from the stage of “Design and development of processes”. On entering this phase, the data or basic elements provided by the user and defined in the responsibility matrix (figure 1). On the basis of stages selected according to the methodology APQP creates a schedule of preparation of production. Note on the schedule of the checkpoint, which will check a period and what you have done. Developed a schedule is the control element for all sub processes of the process “production Preparation” [6].

Figure 1. The responsibility matrix

Thanks to the developable schedule that clearly shows who and at what time frame performs a specific operation of the organization preparation of production for new products. We also organize discipline on the enterprise [7].

Thus, this methodology provides many benefits, including the following:

- a clearer understanding of the purpose of the process, its objectives, scope and reality of the incarnation all the planned events.

- ability to handle uncertainties directly in the management process in the first stage.

- the ability to identify those risks that are most important and require the most attention.

- the use of models and methods allowing a quantitative determination of estimates of variability and uncertainty.

- obtaining quantitative data for justification of compromise decisions.

- creation of conditions for developing a coherent and realistic plan that provides a rational basis for forecasting and evaluation of possible events.


References
  1. Ахмаджанов С., Шерстобитова А., Гудкова С. Пути повышения конкурентоспособности предприятий. Теория практической современной науки 2016 N 4(10) P 76
  2. Пинто Д.К. Управление проектами / Перевод с англ. под ред. В.Ф. Фунтова – СПб.: Питер, 2004
  3. Либерзон В.И. Основы управления проектами. М., 1997.
  4. Глухова Л.В. Методология  развития бизнес-процессов и бизнес-планирования в отраслях промышленности // Вестник ПВГУС, 2010. № 13, С. 14-21
  5. Эдвард Ф.Н. Управление проектами Time-to-Profit. М.: Технологии управления Спайдер, 1999.
  6. Пинто Д.К. Управление проектами / Перевод с англ. под ред. В.Ф. Фунтова – СПб.: Питер, 2004
  7. Смирнов, В.А., Брувер А.В., Амяльев А.А. QS-9000 / Методы менеджмента качества – 2002.


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