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ОЦЕНКА ВЗАИМОСВЯЗИ АДАПТИВНОСТИ И СОБЛЮДЕНИЯ РЕЖИМА ДНЯ ОБУЧАЮЩИХСЯ В ШКОЛЕ И МЕДИЦИНСКОМ ВУЗЕ

Фертикова Татьяна Евгеньевна1, Ряскин Кирилл Александрович2, Ряскина Дарья Александровна3
1Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко, к.м.н., доцент кафедры общей гигиены
2Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко, студент 3 курса педиатрического факультета
3Российская медицинская академия непрерывного последипломного образования, ординатор 1-го года обучения

Аннотация
В статье рассматривается проблема адаптации студентов-первокурсников к обучению в вузе и ее связь с соблюдением студентами режима дня. В исследовании приняли участие 29 студентов разных курсов ВГМУ и 20 школьников – учащихся 11 класса. Была проведена диагностика их адаптивных способностей (АС), нервно-психической устойчивости (НПУ), коммуникативных особенностей (КО), моральной нормативности (МН), и установлена связь между соблюдением / несоблюдением режима дня обучающихся с уровнем их адаптивных способностей.

Ключевые слова: адаптация, режим дня, эмоциональная устойчивость


ADAPTATION AND THE DAY TIME REGIMEN AT SCHOOL AND MEDICAL UNIVERSITY: THEIR CORRELATION AND EVALUATION

Fertikova Tatyana Evgenevna1, Ryaskin Kirill Aleksandrovich2, Ryaskina Darya Aleksandrovna3
1Voronezh N.N.Burdenko State Medical University, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the General Hygiene Department
2Voronezh N.N.Burdenko State Medical University, third-year student of the Pediatric Faculty
3Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Post-Graduate Education, first-year residency student

Abstract
The article describes problem of the first-year students’ adaptation to educational process at higher school and its interrelation with the day regimen observation. The research study contains data on 29 medical students and 20 schoolchildren – pupils of the 11th grade at school. Tests to investigate their adaptivity, neuropsychic stability, communication skills and moral normalization were carried out and relationship between the day regimen observation/ non-observation and students` adaptivity was established.

Рубрика: 14.00.00 МЕДИЦИНСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Фертикова Т.Е., Ряскин К.А., Ряскина Д.А. Adaptation and the day time regimen at school and medical university: their correlation and evaluation // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2016. № 12 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2016/12/75766 (дата обращения: 29.09.2017).

INTRODUCTION. Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of the environment.

[3, 4, 5] The first-year students’ adaptation to educational process at higher school currently seems to be of special interest. This process is characterized by significant challenges as evidenced by a considerable students` left-out after the first examination periods and degradation of educational results during the first year at higher school comparing to the results of the Uniform State Examination and academic school rating. Many researchers seem to care about the search of effective forms and methods of work able to help first-year students successfully adapt to the educational process at higher school [1].

Successful adaptation of students mostly depends on their health state and their life style management. As N.Y.Vvedensky reported, people work inefficiently and become tired rapidly because they cannot arrange their working activity properly [5]. He considered that a person could save working efficiency and prevent overstrain if he followed certain rules: he should start working gradually; keep sequencing and consistency in any activity; alternate activities of various types and work and rest.

It is known that process of adaptation is not influenced only by the academic load but a lot of factors – long sitting on the computer monitor, staying in the poorly ventilated room, complicated personal interrelations in the academic group, new living conditions, diet and sleep violation being among them.

Schoolchildren and students’ daily activity should include such a must as a dietary pattern, outdoor activity during the day, certain duration and amount of sleep, specially organized working place both in the educational environment and at home, properly arranged free time activity (preferably active outdoor activity). Observation of the day time regimen results in stable conditioned reflexes, and, due to them, a human body becomes prepared to the future activity. Concurrently, all physiological processes move with less “physiological cost” (faster and easier). This is considered to be the basic hygienic value of the day time regimen.

METHODS. The authors have studied the following behavioral parameters in the 11th grade schoolchildren of the Lyceum 1, Voronezh, and the first- and fourth-year students of the Voronezh N.N.Burdenko State Medical University (VSMU): adaptive capacity (AC), neuropsychic stability (NS), communicative skills (CS), moral normativity (MN), – and have established correlation between observation/ non-observation of the day time regimen by the students and schoolchildren with their adaptive capacity level (AC is equal NS + CS + MN).

20 schoolchildren of the 11th grade of the Municipal Budget Educational Establishment “Lyceum 1”, 14 first-year students and 15 fourth-year students of the General Medicine Faculty of the VSMU participated in the research study.

The authors used questionnaire survey to reveal how the participants observe the day time regimen (worked out by them) and multilevel personality questionnaire on adaptivity made out by A.G.Maklakov and S.V.Chermyanin [2].

RESULTS. The results obtained are as follows:

“adaptive capacity” scale –

1)    the 11th grade schoolchildren:

  • low adaptive capacity – 2 participants (10%),
  • moderate adaptive capacity – 8 participants (40%),
  • normal and high adaptive capacity – 10 participants (50%);

2)    the first-year students of the VSMU:

  • low adaptive capacity – 1 participant (7,2%),
  • moderate adaptive capacity – 3 participants (21,4%),
  • normal and high adaptive capacity – 10 participants (71,4%);

3)    the fourth-year students of the VSMU:

  • low adaptive capacity – 1 participant (6,6%),
  • moderate adaptive capacity – 7 participants (46,7%),
  • normal and high adaptive capacity – 7 participants (46,7%).

Thus, it is evident that comparable adaptive capacity findings can be observed in various age groups with certain increase of adaptive capacity with aging (10% of schoolchildren demonstrating low adaptive capacity, as well as 7,2% of the first-year students, 6,6% of the fourth-year students).

People demonstrating moderate level of adaptivity have signs of various accentuations that are partly compensated in regular conditions and may reveal when changing an activity. Therefore, successive adaptivity depends on the external environment. As a rule, people of this group have low emotional stability; asocial break downs, aggression and bad behavior are possible. Such people need an individual approach, permanent control, correctional measures.

People demonstrating high and normal adaptive capacities are easily adapted to new environmental conditions, rapidly enter a new team, sufficiently easy and adequately orientate in a situation, quickly develop strategy of their behavior. As a rule, they are not confrontational and have high level of emotional stability.

If we study correlation of the adaptive capacity and the day time regimen observation, we can notice the following: 80 – 100% of the schoolchildren are disposed to do regular daily activity systematically, i.e. keeping the day time regimen, by characteristics “regularity of activity – the diet regimen”, doing homework regimen” and planning of their time schedule. The great majority of the interviewed students keep the day time regimen, but comparing to schoolchildren their day off schedule is violated.

72 – 80% of the schoolchildren and first-year students, and only 49% of the fourth-year students follow the diet regimen. 65 – 72% of the schoolchildren and first-year students, and only 28% of the fourth-year students always have breakfast.

75% of the schoolchildren and only 27 – 28% of the tested students regularly do sports; 85% of the schoolchildren, 15% of the first-year students and 37% of the fourth-year students go out or do sports at the weekends. 45 and 42% of the first- and fourth-year students respectively walk out every day in the evening; none of the 20 tested schoolchildren does this.

The first- and fourth-year students more properly arrange their academic activity at home: they regularly take breaks in 63 and 84% of cases respectively. Only 20% of schoolchildren take breaks regularly while doing hometask.

The sleeping pattern is violated in all groups of the testees. To answer the question “When do you go to bed?” 80% of the schoolchildren, 90% of the first-year students and 84% of the fourth-year students chose the category “It depends”. 54% of the first-year students answered “Never” to the question “How often do you get enough sleep?”. This fact may give evidence of disadaptation process.  But these data are not supported by the fact that 71% of the first-year students and only 50% of the 11th grade schoolchildren have normal and high level adaptivity.

CONCLUSION. Thus, we can conclude that:

  1. In most cases the schoolchildren are disposed to systematically develop regular daily activity. This fact is supported by the data on their day time regimen observation, regular sports activity, and ways of spending their free time during weekends. This, consequently, leads to higher level of adaptivity. The amount of the tested schoolchildren having moderate, normal and high level of adaptivity is 90%.
  2. Both, the first- and fourth-year students of the VSMU are less disposed to observe the day time regimen comparing to schoolchildren, except for breaks when doing hometasks and daily going out in the evenings. Keeping on the alert is the fact that more than half of the first-year students do not get enough sleep. In spite of the less systematic daily activity students’ adaptivity is sufficiently high. The amount of the first- and fourth-year students having moderate, normal and high level of adaptivity is 93%.
  3. The conducted analysis of correlation between adaptivity and the day time regimen observation at school and medical university allows giving a conclusion about the necessity for students to more thoroughly arrange and keep the day time regimen in order to develop higher level of adaptivity.

References
  1. Zaytseva N. K. Peculiarities of the students’ socio-pedagogics adaptivity in the educational complex environment. Izvestiya Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta [Proceeding of the Volgograd state pedagogical university], 2009, № 4, pp. 55–58. (in Russian)
  2. Multilevel personality questionnaire “Adaptivity” by A.G.Maklakov and S.V.Chermyanin. Prakticheskaya psikhodiagnostika. Metodiki i testy [Practical psychodiagnostics. Methods and tests], Samara, 2001, pp.549-558. (in Russian)
  3. http://enc-dic.com/pedagogics/Adaptacija-24/ (accessed date: 12.04.2015)
  4. http://moyslovar.ru/slovari/med_slovar/bukva/%D0%90 http://moyslovar.ru/slovari/med_slovar/slovo/%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BF%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F (accessed date: 10.04.2015)
  5. http://www.scienceclarified.com/A-Al/Adaptation.html#ixzz48JYqSymE (accessed date: 20.04.2016)
  6. Uflyand Y. M. Osnovnye etapy razvitiya ucheniya N. E. Vvedenskogo [Main stages of  N.Y.Vvedensky theory]. M. Medgiz, 1989, 112 p. (in Russian)


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