УДК 338.24.01

ДИНАМИКА ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ ИНВЕСТИЦИОННОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

Курилова Анастасия Александровна
Тольяттинский государственный университет
доктор экономических наук, доцент, профессор кафедры «Финансы и кредит»

Аннотация
В статье проводится оценка динамики изменения инвестиционной активности Самарской области. На основании результатов анализа выявлено, что Самарская область является одним из наиболее индустриально развитых регионов России с обширной экономикой со значительной долей обрабатывающей промышленности, серьезным научным и инновационным потенциалом. Также было выявлено, что область занимает четвертое место по объемам общего производства инновационной продукции в РФ. Однако в результате анализа было выявлено, что Самарская область на текущий момент отстает по объему и по темпам роста данных инвестиций. Также было выявлено, что поток прямых иностранных инвестиций в Самарскую область довольно нестабилен, объем инвестиций сильно варьируется год от года, основные «всплески» приходятся на периоды сделок по продаже крупных промышленных активов и периоды модернизации крупнейших производств.

Ключевые слова: инвестиции, инвестиции в инновации, инновации, инновационный потенциал, иностранные инвестиции, кластер, косвенные инвестиции, прямые инвестиции, Самарская область, технопарки


DYNAMIC CHANGE OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY IN SAMARA REGION

Kurilova Anastasia Alexandrovna
Togliatti State University
Ph.D., professor of «Finance and Credit»

Abstract
The article assesses the dynamics of investment activity of the Samara region. Based on the analysis of the results revealed that the Samara region is one of the most industrially developed regions of Russia with an extensive economy with a large share of the manufacturing sector, a major research and innovation potential. It was also revealed that the region ranks fourth in terms of total production of innovative products in the Russian Federation. However, the analysis revealed that the Samara region currently lags behind in terms of volume and in terms of growth of these investments. It was also found that the flow of foreign direct investments in the Samara region is quite unstable, investment varies greatly from year to year, the main "spikes" occur in periods of transactions for the sale of large industrial assets and periods of modernization major industries.

Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Курилова А.А. Dynamic change of investment activity in Samara region // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2016. № 11 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2016/11/74123 (дата обращения: 29.11.2016).

Samara region, despite the significant growth of foreign direct investment that occurred in the early 2000-ies, currently is lagging behind in terms of volume and growth rate of these investments. Samara oblast was inferior to other regions, intensified competition for investors.

Due to the “splashes” in 2008 and 2012, the Samara region has retained a good position in terms of accumulated foreign direct investment per capita. Their volume for the period between 2005 and 2012 per capita in the Samara region amounted to $ 379,1. US per person. Thus, the share of the Samara region in total volume of attracted into Russia of foreign direct investment in 2012 increased to 0.41%.

However, that the flow of foreign direct investment in the Samara region is quite unstable, the investment varies greatly from year to year, the main “peaks” occur in periods of transactions for the sale of large industrial assets and the period of modernization of major industries. Unlike foreign direct investment, the total investment in fixed capital recovered after the crisis and amounted to 204,2 billion. Here also the largest investors are Rosneft and AVTOVAZ, the share of which in the total structure of 10.8% and 6.9%, respectively.
In contrast to the “internal” investment, foreign direct investments more susceptible to market fluctuations and recover more slowly [1, p.83].

To create a successful policy in attracting foreign direct investment it is necessary to understand which factors are primarily oriented investors when making their decisions.

Table 1 – Strengths and weaknesses of the investment climate in Samara region

Strengths

Weaknesses

the presence of well developed industry clusters

the lack of a unified coordinated system for attracting and working with investors

the possibility of transportation of cargoes all types of transport

lack of awareness of key target groups of investors and lack of adequate incentives for them

the presence of a large market

fuzzy positioning of the Samara region for investors, the low intensity of promotion of Samara region

an attractive labour market

the lack of quality industrial infrastructure, connectivity and energy infrastructure

the presence of special economic zones

high administrative barriers and lack of system “one window”

For the successful development of the Samara region has developed a strategy for attracting investment to the region. The investment strategy considers the key investment priorities of the Samara region, the measures of forming a favorable investment climate, as well as the proposed plan of activities (roadmap) for implementation of the Investment strategy.

In forming the investment policy of the region identified the key priorities that define the directions of development of the region [2, p.170].

Table 2 – Key priorities guiding the development of the region

Cluster attractiveness

potential productivity

current volume and growth potential of the root cluster segments in the next 3-5 years in the Russian and global markets

Current level of development of the cluster

the relative size

level of specialization

 achieved performance level

achieved performance levelThe availability of the key factors for the development of the cluster

natural conditions

infrastructure

personnel

suppliers and partners

market access

The following groups were able to identify clusters As a result of the prioritization of clusters Samara region [3, p.18].

Table 3 – Results of the prioritization of clusters Samara region

Clusters first priority

Clusters second priority

Other industrial clusters

Potentially new sectors

The automotive cluster

Cluster construction and building materials: the production of building materials

A cluster of electrical equipment manufacturing

pharmaceutical industry

Aerospace cluster

Building

Heavy Engineering Cluster

IT industry

Petrochemical cluster: the production of plastic and products from them

Agrofood cluster: food production

Electronic industry

Chemical sector

The economy Agriculture

Oil and gas sector

The transport and logistics cluster

Oil and gas

To improve the investment attractiveness of the region to develop “unique offer” to investors, which will highlight the region compared to other regions, thus attracting investors in the Samara region [4, p.107].

To this end, the current values of the factors of the Samara region for investors were added to the newly created value factors to form a “unique offer” region. These new factors will lower the administrative barriers, adequate transportation and logistics structure and modern industrial area [5, p.193].

Samara region must overcome the backlog of regionov- competitors on the level of administrative barriers and the quality of public services, as currently it has the most negative impact on attracting investors. Reducing administrative barriers will occur by reducing the number and duration of administrative procedures, improve the efficiency of government agencies and anti-corruption.

To improve the region’s investment attractiveness is necessary to solve the lack of industrial infrastructure for the expansion or creation of new industries. The solution to this problem – the creation of industrial parks in the system [6, p.150].

Industrial parks will be created with the participation of the Samara Region Government, with the involvement of private investors. The main role of the state would be to the administrative support of the construction, maintenance of communal infrastructure connecting parks and transport infrastructure development. Industrial parks will be managed by management companies, which will ensure the operation of the park, to attract investors and to provide services to residents of the parks (administration, logistics, personnel, equipment repair, wastewater treatment, etc.).

Resident companies of industrial parks will use a common engineering infrastructure – electricity, gas and heat supply, water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment plants, etc. Existence of general infrastructure, along with the possibilities of additional benefits make it easier to attract residents, by ensuring lower production costs [7, p.8].

Industrial parks will be established in key industries. The main condition for the choice of location of the parks is the access to the labor market and easy access to transport infrastructure.

In the Samara region are invited to create a system of industrial parks, aimed at increasing the competitiveness of key clusters.

The analysis of the priority areas the location of industrial parks have been identified:

- Park of auto components suppliers it is advisable to locate in close proximity to AVTOVAZ, as well as near the plant Bosh;

- Chemical park – place in the region Novokuibyshevsk, where is concentrated the bulk of petrochemical enterprises, as well as near the city of Togliatti;

- Park “machinery and equipment” it is advisable to place in Samara in the city on the basis of the existing areas of aerospace cluster;

- Park for small and medium-sized enterprises it is expedient to place within the precincts of GO Samara in the free areas.

The next step is to improve the investment attractiveness of the region is the formation of a package of incentives for investors, taking into account the specifics of individual industries and target investors. Stimulus package is a very strong tool to attract investors who can distinguish the region from other regions of Russia. Moreover, its budget efficiency will be taken into account when developing a package of incentives. In general, you can divide the incentives for tax, financial, land and infrastructure.

When developing a package of incentives necessary to analyze the systems of rival regions, namely: identification of the main competing regions in each of the sector and the comparison with competitors for each sector. You then define the optimum system of incentives, it is necessary to determine the significance of various incentives for investors to determine the effectiveness of different sets of fiscal incentives and ultimately determine the optimal stimuli for each industry. After determining the incentive system should be its implementation, it is necessary to adjust the legal framework under the new incentives, and then use incentives designed system in marketing the region for investors.

An urgent task for the Samara Region is to promote the brand in the region as a place for investment, which will be important in attracting investors. It is necessary to pay attention not only to inform potential investors, but also to monitor their feedback, which will have a value in the long term.

For Samara region it is advisable to allocate 2 development institution: Agency for Investment and Development Corporation of Samara region. The improvement of the system to attract investment, we must remember that the functions of institutions with different business models are usually divided into different organizations.

Five key factors for the success of the Agency’s investments identified for efficient operation.

In accordance with the identified problems at the stage of diagnosis, as well as analysis of international and Russian experience, are interrelated recommendations to improve the investment climate.

The strategy for attracting investments in the Samara region can be represented as the following several subprocesses: the first context; second strategy; the third is implementation.

Авторы благодарны Российскому гуманитарному научному фонду за частичную финансовую поддерж­ку данной работы (Региональный конкурс «Волжские земли в истории и культуре России», грант № 16-12- 63003).


References
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  6. Ajupov A.A., Artamonov A.B., Kurilov K.U., Kurilova A.A. Reconomic bases of formation and development of financial engineering in financial innovation // Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2014. Т. 5. № 24. С. 148-153.
  7. Курилов К.Ю. Прогнозы развития мировой автопромышленности // Международный научный журнал. 2011. № 5. С. 5-10.


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