УДК 94

ТОРГОВЫЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ БУХАРСКОГО ХАНСТВА С РОССИЕЙ

Мингноров Абдухолик Тошмирзаевич
Ташкентский Финансовый Институт
доцент

Аннотация
Торговые отношения Бухарского ханства с Россией. XXвек.

Ключевые слова: Бухарское ханство, Россия


TRADE RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND BUKHARA

Mingnorov Abdukholik Toshmirzaevich
Tashkent financial institute
Docent

Abstract
In the beginnings of the 20th century - Trade relations between Russia and Bukhara.

Рубрика: 07.00.00 ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Мингноров А.Т. Trade relations between Russia and Bukhara // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2016. № 6 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2016/06/69485 (дата обращения: 06.06.2017).

In the beginnings of the 20th century, the weight of the socio-economic and of cultural life in Turkestan and indeed the negative impact of the political processes had been extremely huge.

In the newspaper of the “Ozod Bukhara” Mirkadir Muhiddinov on the meeting concerning of the impact of foreign trade to Bukhara economic life gives following information.

Before establishing the railway, it can say not being trade relations of Bukhara with Russia. Commodities were gone into Bukhara from Afghanistan, Iran and China.

Whereas Goods were produced to these countries by Bukhara. However, as a reason of long of ways and costing expensive of the way payment, trade works didn’t develop with these countries. With launching the railway of Central Asia, the commerce began to revive among the Bukhara and Russia.

Particularly, 710 000 a sum in 1833 year, 1 170 000 a sum in 1839, 2 206 000 a sum goods were produced. 31 710 000 a worth of goods in 1911 year were exported from Bukhara to Russia. Previous to the railway was not built, the peasant agricultural economy of Bukhara was a very slight. Because, the own market of the Bukhara did not require a lot of things. After the railway has been constructed and beginning of connections with Russia, the peasant agricultural of Bukhara began to increase.

Before, on condition that 20-40 thousand pood of cotton were planted in the Bukhara Emirate, after the railway has been constructed, the cotton planting in Bukhara boosted to 2 million poods.

On condition that 50 000 piece astrakhans were exported in 1860 year, the number of astrakhans being exported in 1910 year reached to18 million pieces. On condition being sold abroad 80 percentage of goods have been exported to Russia by Bukhara, 90 percentage of goods being entered from abroad to the Bukhara have been implemented by Russia. The business of Bukhara with foreign countries reached to the 35-40 million som per year.

Russia investors came to Bukhara for trade and instigated to open banks here. Along with this, it embarked on the period of (akcha) currency in Bukhara. Then, cotton plants have been opened, the number of plants till the Russian Revolution (on February in 1917) reached to the 33. All these plants had got 3 thousand horsepower. Although Amir Government was pursuing a policy of approach with England, as a reason of long of way and being the way payment’s expensive.  Commerce attitudes could not connect among Bukhara with India. In consequence of reasons being mentioned above, the price of cow being broken up in Bukhara decreased sharp.

On condition that the pood of cotton is 1 som 50 kopecks, in 1920 years its pood decreased to 1 som 50 kopecks[1].

It can observe this from information above, the Central Asia is counted which rich to raw materials, particularly, decreasing the price of the cows to be broking up in the Bukhara Emirate, Bukhara Republic and it cans see striving to take to its own possession.

It is know that after 1917 year, the politics of the attacking, pillage of Bolsheviks carrying on in Central Asia caused worsening of lifestyle level of the province people. It can know from this situation through indications of village economy production to be exported from province to Russia.

In newspaper of the “Ozod Bukhara” of 1924 year in the number of 6th April, in the information in material on commission “of regulation of foreign trade were so written.  Every year, approximately 39 500 000 sum goods were produced from Bukhara Republic to foreign countries till “Revolution”, 33 000 000 sum merchandise would be entered. Attending the current political and economic situation, being so much is true, that exporting goods from Bukhara to foreign than the merchandise to be entering to Bukhara in 1924. The goods to be entering from foreign to Bukhara have been on following amount.

12 coach a Cloth, porcelain and glass, 500 000 pood of grain, sugar-150 000 pood, tea has been 16 000 pood. According to think of Commerce of Commission, the amount of goods importing from foreign, not exceeding is exactly from following amount.  Textile-60 000 000, china and glass vessel-12 car, grain-500 000 pood, sugar-150 000 pood, sweet-40 000 pood, tea is a 16 000 pood.  According to thought of the Trade commission, it is true not increasing from following quantity that the amount of commodities of being imported from abroad. Particularly,  Textile-30 000 000, china and 12 500 000 a som glass vessels,  grain-till 300 000 pood-500 000 som, sugar-75 000 pood-625 000 som sweet-20 000 pood-240 000 a som, tea 8 000 pood-1 625 000 a som[2].

In the number of 10 April of newspaper of the “Ozod Bukhara” of 1924 year, in the information of commission “of regulating a trade. It is written followings which concerning the goods to be exporting from Bukhara. The office of the participation corporation of Russia-Bukhara is at the Moscow and its city. Corporation pointed to export goods at this degree in this year. Karakul’s skin is 150 000 pieces,-1 100 000 som, wool-40 000 pood-320 000 som, different leather is 165 000 pieces -577 000 som, this corporation getting along with “Xayriye” corporation, investment of the corporation has consisted of 666 000 som.

Particularly, cotton is 75 000 pood that is 400 000 som, wool is 50 000 pood -400 000 som, dried fruit are 50 000 pood, -250 000 som, leather is 200 000 pieces-325 000 a som were produced.

By “Ikbol” corporation, cotton is 10 000 pood-220 000 som, Karakul skin is 6000 piece -48 000 som, wool is 3000 pood-26 000 a som. In total, 294 000 a som goods were exported[3].

It can see that Tyrant Soviet Government attended so much to cotton of provinces. “There were all 23 cotton plants in Turkestan in 1923. It is said which the number of plants will be delivered to the 35 in 1924.The number of places (posts) accepting cottons from peasants reached to 46 in 1923[4].

However, It can see a illegality in buying the cotton of peasants. When peasants passed the cotton to the factory, they lost very much. It has caused to be bad of good cottons on hand of keeper of scales. Peasants accept its words of keeper of scales of the 1st factory in Tashkent, something is given to him, his cotton were accepted at the state of high-quality.  If it is not so done, 1st quality cotton was accepted[5]. Concerning Productions of the village economy to be raring in Turkestan, in the newspaper of public commissariat, it can take so much information. Spinning materials is a rich source of Turkestan. According to information of cotton committee, in 1916, 21 932 922 pood of cotton is needed for Russia. In 1918-1919 years, 50 % of the Picked cotton is 1st qualify, its 32% in 1919-1920 years, in 1920-1921, were decreased to 18%[6].

In the 1924-1925 years, planting cotton were pointed on the 208 000 dessiatina earth from Turkestan, 40 000 dessiatina from Bukhara, 15 000 dessiatina from Xorezm 15 000 dessiatina. Taking 21 million pood of cotton from this land, it was guessed, it was said that half of 2 som is given to each pood of cotton[7], it should be noted that the issue which has got to the most important attention in the economic and trade of the Former Soviet government were a price policy. The management regime of Soviet Union served in a way that is for the benefit of the center. The newspaper of the “Ozod Bukhara” gives the following information about this issue.

The difference was a huge between the piece of peasant and cattle-raisers’ product with products of factory and plants. Before the war (The first World War being implied), the piece of peasant production is two times cheaper than to previous cost. For Instance, on condition the piece of cotton-plant in Bukhara Republic is 21 som, now is between 11-12 som.

On condition the piece of the Karakul skin till war was 7-8 som in the gold piece, now is among 3-4 som. From the piece of the factory and plants productions being till war are 2-3 times more. For example, on condition the meter of calico was 11-12 kopeck, now it has been 25-30 kopeck. The sweet being 5-6 som a pood, currency day have been 10-11 som

Of course, this situation caused deteriorating of economic situation of farmer and live-stocks. That’s way, one the most important tasks facing the government, it consist of increasing the price of peasant and cattle-raisers’ production and from decreasing price of production of factory and plants[8].

In accordance with reclining to information on the above, it can say that,

The Soviet government not only in republic of Bukhara, perhaps, in general, altering Central Asia on its own raw materials base and for keeping the nations servitude, carried out such robberies policy in every way.

If in the end of the 19th century and in the beginnings of 20th century not only in the republic of Bukhara, perhaps for lighting up the social, economic and political process comprehensive, information in the pages of published nation press in that year through learning comprehensive, we can reach to put goal.


References
  1. The economy situation of Bukhara// Ozod Bukhara. 1924. On march 11 № 61.
  2. How many merchandise will it be entered to Bukhara? // Ozod Bukhara. 1924. On april 6 №
  3. How many goods will be imported from Bukhara? // Ozod Bukhara. 1924. On April 10 № 74.
  4. How many goods will be imported from Bukhara? // Ozod Bukhara. 1924. On April 10 № 74.
  5. Difficulties of peasant // Turkestan. 1924. On march 29 № 249
  6. The problem of Turkestan // Life of nationalities. 1921. On November 19 №26
  7. How many cotton were planted? // Turkestan. 1924. On march 29 № 249.
  8. Price politic // Ozod Bukhara. 1924. On march 15 № 62.


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