УДК 336.71

ОСОБЕННОСТИ КРЕДИТОВАНИЯ ЮРИДИЧЕСКИХ ЛИЦ В СБЕРБАНКЕ РОССИИ В СОВРЕМЕННЫЙ ПЕРИОД

Басс Александр Борисович
ФГОБУ ВО «Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации»
кандидат экономических наук, доцент, доцент кафедры «Денежно-кредитные отношения и монетарная политика»

Аннотация
В данной статье раскрывается специфика кредитования юридических лиц в Сбербанке России в современный период. Проводится анализ процентной политики, изменений в требованиях к заемщикам корпоративного сегмента. Рассматриваются изменения в клиентской политике Сбербанка России. Выявляются причины происходящих изменений и предлагается их обоснование.

Ключевые слова: банк, кредитная политика, кредитование, Сбербанк России


FEATURES OF LENDING TO NON-FINANCIAL SECTOR IN SBERBANK OF RUSSIA IN THE MODERN PERIOD

Bass Alexander Borisovich
Financial University under the Government of Russian Federation
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Monetary Relations & Monetary Policy

Abstract
This article reveals the specificity of crediting of legal entities in Sberbank of Russia in the modern period. The analysis of interest rate policy, changes in the requirements for borrowers of non-financial sector is performed. Changes in the client policy of Sberbank of Russia are discussed. We also identify reasons for these changes and their rationale is being studied.

Keywords: bank, credit policy, lending, Sberbank of Russia.


Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Басс А.Б. Features of lending to non-financial sector in Sberbank of Russia in the modern period // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2015. № 9. Ч. 1 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2015/09/57366 (дата обращения: 01.10.2017).

In the activities of commercial banks including Sberbank of Russia, corporate lending occupies an important place. In 2014 and early 2015 in connection with sharp deterioration of economic conditions, the volume of credit that banks provided to legal entities decreased.

The increase in the cost of attracted resources used by banks, as well as market volatility has forced banks to change lending terms, tighten collateral requirements, reduce the period of loans’ maturity and stop lending to the riskiest industries.

Increased interest rates on loans to legal entities increased requirements for the financial position of borrowers and the collateral for the loan. These measures are the appropriate response of banks to an increase in risks associated with foreign economic and political factors and significant deterioration of the economic situation in the country.

Many banks have reduced lending, primarily to large and medium-sized enterprises. Large enterprises are now experiencing difficulties in refinancing maturing bonds and lending to them is of high risk today. However, a risk to finance small and medium enterprises is even greater.

Due to a sharp deterioration of the economic environment, enterprises are in a difficult position, they are not ready to expand production, increase investment and to borrow at a high interest rate. The predominant part of loans to legal entities were issued in 2014 for working capital for up to one year. Legal entities, except for loans for working capital, significantly increased the demand for loans by refinancing old debts. Most customers of banks significantly reduced revenue, and they are trying to reduce leverage and size of payments. And in this case, refinancing may give the effect even at face of rising rates.

In the third and fourth quarters of 2014 was an increase in interest rates on loans to legal entities in almost all banks, and this is due to the rising costs of resources involved. The reason for the increase is a lift of the key rate of the Central Bank.

Sberbank of Russia has revised interest rates on corporate loans upwards in the course of the year three times. In late December it was announced that the rate is increased on 3-4 b.p. for previously issued loans at a rate of 9-10% per annum. In addition, Sberbank has raised minimum margins. Sberbank accounts for over a third (38.7%) of the total volume of lending to legal entities (as of 1 December 2014). [1]

In the second half of 2014 and the first quarter of 2015 Sberbank of Russia experienced stagnation of the portfolio of credits to legal entities. The bank’s loan portfolio to corporate customers in February fell by 5.6 percent to 11,79 trillion rubles), due to currency revaluation; since the beginning of the year the growth amounted to 0.8 percent. [2]

Operations with legal entities of Sberbank of Russia include a wide range of operations: maintenance of current accounts, opening of deposits, granting of financing, issuing guarantees, maintenance of export-import operations, collection, foreign exchange services, money transfers in favor of legal entities, etc.

Customer policy of the bank is focused on building long-term mutually beneficial relations with all groups of customers regardless of business size or ownership. When lending priorities were given to enterprises that have a positive credit history, most of financial transactions of which is held in the accounts of Sberbank of Russia.

Developing relationships with these customers, the Bank has introduced the institute of customer managers and held managers for large clients. In addition, a system of managing customer relationship, which includes a complete dossier of clients, including information on sales volumes, financial performance, customer contacts, the implementation of transactions with customers was created.

The focus of many branches of Sberbank of Russia on services to corporate clients, the bank’s image and strong relationships with borrowers provided it with significant competitive advantages in this area of banking business. Among them are: a high level of services to corporate clients, based on years of experience; a developed effective system of trnsactions, high speed of services, individual approach to each client; ever-expanding range of banking products offered to clients. [3]

Due to low predictability of the future dynamics of the main factors influencing financial results, Sberbank of Russia has tightened requirements for borrowers, increased level of monitoring of undertaken risks, has adopted a more conservative approaches in risk assessment and increased reserves for possible losses to a level adequate to the current level of risk. [1]

In modern conditions of economic instability, decline, deterioration in overall business conditions a necessary practice in all divisions of Sberbank of Russia has become a more rigorous approach to risk assessment, financial condition and prospects of the activity of borrowers. To ensure sustainability and reduce credit risks Sberbank creates an adequate allowance for loan impairment.

Sberbank of Russia now uses a conservative approach when planning long-term projects on development of business and convinces customers who quite often are experiencing any financial difficulties to resolve the matter with the bank employees that will solve the problem quickly and not bring the situation to a critical level. If one still see this situation occurs, then Sberbank of Russia will try to do best for all the participants of the problem, so that the bank and the client could find the solution with minimal losses.

For lending to legal entities in 2015, Sberbank of Russia has allocated the following principles. In the first place following sectors are to be supported by the Bank:

  • Industry, which activities are aimed at meeting the basic important needs for the population (i.e. the funding of pharmacies, retailers, etc.);
  • industry, serving the military-industrial complex;
  • industry, which are addressing the challenges of society and the maintenance (this includes water and electricity, etc.);
  • small business enterprises;
  • enterprises of agriculture;
  • maximum support to existing customers and borrowers of the Sberank within the previously concluded contracts.

Given the importance of work in front of customers and shareholders in this difficult time, Sberbank of Russia regularly introduces more specific measures to manage risk more effectively:

  • changes the priorities of business clients, devotes all its attention to the activities in the particularly difficult conditions of the economy;
  • increases the security of already received credits timely and appropriate cash flows from activity of the borrower;
  • decreases the credit limit on the maximum debt load;
  • requires to provide collateral of liquid assets;
  • increases level of control by the Sberbank for mandatory and responsible behavior of managers and regulation through the introduction of additional restrictions on the activities of a customer of the borrower, including:
  • the reduction of the limit on maximum load of debt;
  • expanding the list of events that result in a premature discovery of the debt to the bank;
  • introduction of more precise conditions for a cross-default under the obligations of the borrower to other creditors.

It should be noted that some types of loans were restructured by making changes in the original terms of the loan agreement more favorable to the borrower. While the bank’s bad loans suggest that a positive decision on the restructuring may be taken only in the presence of confirmed objective facts, such restructuring will continue to contribute to the normalization of the economic condition of the borrower and timely debt service in full.

An important area of improving practice of crediting of legal entities in the current situation should be improving the quality of assessment of collateral for loans. Assessment of the value of collateral is determined by the bank based on internal peer review by experts of the bank, assessment of independent appraisers, or on the basis of the value of the collateral in the financial statements of the borrower with the use of a discount.

In accordance with the policy of the bank, the value of the collateral or the amount of guarantees on loans to legal entities are required to cover the amount of the loan and interest accrued not less than three months. Borrowers shall maintain insurance of collateral or make additional payments on the loan in the absence of insurance. But in the current situation it’s necessary to more frequently monitor the quality of loans’ collateral.

 


References
  1. Strategija razvitija Sberbanka na period 2014-2018 gg. http://www.sberbank.ru/common/img/uploaded/files/SberbankDevelopmentStrategSb er2014-2018.pdf;
  2. Kobzeva O. Sberbank vstretilsja v fevrale so stagnaciej kreditov i vkladov. Reuters 17. 3. 2015;
  3. Ustojchivost’ bankovskoj sistemy Rossii v uslovijah jekonomicheskih krizisov: monografija; pod red. Ju.A. Sokolova. – Saratov: Nauchnaja kniga, 2013.


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