УДК 338.242

ИННОВАЦИОННЫЕ КОМПОНЕНТЫ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ КОНКУРЕНТОСПОСОБНОСТИ СТРАНЫ

Курпаяниди Константин Иванович
Региональный центр переподготовки и повышения квалификации педагогических кадров при Ферганском государственном университете, Узбекистан

Аннотация
В работе проведен анализ текущего состояния инновационной среды в Республике Узбекистан. Выявленные проблемы. Автор предлагает несколько направлений развития инновационного сектора в интеграции страны в мировой рынок высоких технологий.

INNOVATIVE COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS OF COUNTRY

Kurpayanidi Konstantin Ivanovich
The regional center for retraining and advanced training of teachers in the Fergana State University, Uzbekistan

Abstract
The analysis of the current state of the innovative environment in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Identified problems. The author suggests some directions of innovation sector in the country's integration into the world market of high technologies.

Keywords: competitiveness, innovation, technology, the "new economy"., the process of innovation


Рубрика: 08.00.00 ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Курпаяниди К.И. Innovative components of national competitiveness of country // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2013. № 11 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2013/11/28360 (дата обращения: 02.06.2017).

Modern development of global processes, increasing international competition and specialization, the formation of national innovation systems integrated at the international level, the development and distribution of new technologies, and the ability to secure the country’s high-tech products in the market on the basis of technological specialization leads to a fundamentally new industries based on breakthrough technology (macro-technologies). Countries that lagging in the technological development are unable to get involved in the transformation of society, which only increases backlog from highly developed countries [1,3].
At the moment the modern competitive production is impossible without the use of resources, scientific and technological potential. In this case, not only the quantity but also the quality of scientific and technical resources is important, the implementation of innovation management, support system inventions[4].
The share of new knowledge embodied in technology, equipment and organization of production in the industrialized countries account for up to 75-80% of the gross domestic product. CIS countries, including Uzbekistan, lag on this indicator from the developed countries for 45-50 years. To date, according to various estimates, the total capacity of the world’s high-tech market is $ 2 trillion. $ 300 billion and includes 50 – 55 macro-, of which 39% are controlled by the United States, 30% – Japan, 16% – Germany[2,4]. The presence of macro-technologies is a kind of measure scientific and technical development of the country, the inflow of foreign capital to accelerate and strengthen the relationship with the world of innovation markets.
In this context, the competitiveness of the national economy of Uzbekistan is placed in direct dependence on the ability of the leading sectors to produce high-tech products with advanced scientific and technological progress[5].
Currently, Uzbekistan has not formed a “new economy” and there is rejection of innovation strategy of economic development. This is due, first of all, the fact that advances in science are not in demand because of the inconsistency of economic interests of the subjects of the innovation process, and the availability of the consequences of global financial and economic crisis.
In our opinion, the main reasons of technological backwardness of the country are:
• orientation of producers and entrepreneurs to areas more profitable use of capital than innovative products;
• preference of domestic producers to the finished products of Western technology companies;
• lack of development of innovation infrastructure and distribution mechanisms of advanced technologies across sectors of the national economy;
• inefficient institutional environment and imperfection of legal support innovation;
• low level of innovation in industrial production in the country;
• insufficient public funding of scientific and technical activities;
• lack of a clear and effective State policy;
• presence of a weak interaction between research and production, the lack of effective co-operation in research and development[3].
However, lack of funding for science and technology have led to a reduction in research and development, as well as the outflow of scientists in other industries.
Thus, it is needed to solve the underlying problems that contribute to the technological backwardness of Uzbekistan, which can be done by:
• predict and identify strategies for economic and technological development in the future;
• consolidation in the market of high-tech products based on specific technological specialization (which reflects the development of critical technologies in the country);
• the establishment of national innovation systems, integrated on an international level;
• continue to support the state education system, mainly post-graduate education;
• support the processes of technology transfer;
• the creation of institutions to help commercialize technologies;
• close cooperation between business and government, governmental support of domestic producers in entering the high-tech segments of the world market;
• macro-rate Uzbekistan, which will form an effective and competitive industry, improve the quality of science and education, the interest in fundamental and applied research, technological independence and economic security.
Priority fields of new technologies may be:
• Information and telecommunication systems;
• nano systems and materials;
• living systems;
• environmental management;
• energy and energy efficiency;
• security and counter-terrorism.
Therefore, for Uzbekistan the problem of integration into the global market of high technologies, accelerating the innovation processes, ensuring national competitiveness and coordination of scientific and economic policies are important.


References
  1. Aubert, J.-E. (2009). Promoting Innovation in Developing Countries: A Conceptual Framework. World Bank Institute, July. 38.
  2. Baumol, W. (2012). The Free-Market Innovation Machine: Analyzing the Growth Miracle of Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 307.
  3. Курпаяниди, К. И. (2013). К проблеме инновационно-инвестиционной стратегии развития регионов Узбекистана. Актуальные проблемы гуманитарных и социально-экономических наук: Сборник материалов Седьмой международной заочной научно-практической конференции. В 4 ч./Под ред. канд. тех. наук, профессора генерал-майора ММ Горбунова. –Саратов–Вольск: ООО Изд-во «Наука», ВФВАМТО, 2013.–Ч. 3. Актуальные проблемы социально-экономических наук.–76 с. ISBN 978-5-9999-1496-5 (p. 40).
  4. Leftwich, A. (2009). Bringing Politics Back In: Towards a Model of the Developmental State // Journal of Development Studies.
  5. Lundahl, M. (2010). Inside the Predatory State: The Rationale, Methods, and Economic Conse¬quences of Kleptocratic Regimes // Nordic Journal of Political Economy.


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