ЯДЕРНАЯ ФИЗИОЛОГИЯ ЧЕЛОВЕКА

Кричков А., Шнайбель О.

Аннотация
В данной работе, в рамках надфизиологического механизма старения человека, приведены эксперименты и наблюдения по ядерной физиологии человека и определены физиологические процессы, в которых принимают участие природные и космогенные радионуклиды. Рассмотрены различные возрастные периоды жизни человека. Даны первые наблюдательные характеристики Высокоорганизованной Энергетической Среды, взаимодействующей с человеком на момент его первого вдоха.
Исследования, представленные в данной работе, проведены по разделам биофизика, медицинская физика, радиобиология.

Ключевые слова: гамма излучение человека, радионуклиды, старение, ядерная физиология человека


HUMAN NUCLEAR PHYSIOLOGY

Krichkov А., Shnaybel О.

Abstract
Within the frame of supraphysiological mechanism of human ageing, this work describes experiments and observations on human nuclear physiology and determines the physiological processes where natural and cosmogenic radionuclides participate. Various age periods of human life are examined. The first observation characteristics are given of the Highly Organized Energy Medium interacting with human at the moment of his first breath.
The investigations presented in this paper are attributed to biophysics, medical physics and radiobiology.

Keywords: ageing, human gamma radiation, human nuclear physiology, radionuclides


Рубрика: 03.00.00 БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Кричков А., Шнайбель О. Human Nuclear Physiology // Современные научные исследования и инновации. 2013. № 10 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2013/10/28043 (дата обращения: 04.10.2017).

In the middle of the twentieth century Bohr N. [1] mentioned in one of his works: “The entire history of the organic evolution provides us with the results of experiencing the incomprehensible possibilities of atomic interactions in nature” [2]. We will consider the following issues: to what extent a human participates in natural atomic interactions, whether atomic reactions are peculiar to a human, and whether nuclear reactions influence human physiology.

It is known from references that a human has his own radioactivity contributed by the natural radionuclides distributed in human body.

Table 1. Average radionuclide content in human body with the mass of 70 kg and equivalent radiation doses created by the radionuclides [3].

No.

Radionuclide

Quantity, mg

Radioactivity, Bq

Radiation dose, μSv/year

1

40К

22

5600

190

2

87Rb

280

870

6.9

3

14C

1.5 х 10-5

2900

13

4

238U

0.09

1.1

6.8

5

232Th

0.03

0.11

0.7

6

226Ra

3.1 х 10-8

1.1

8.0

On the other hand, it is known that the following natural sources are taken into consideration for the evaluation of equivalent annual dose received by a human.

Table 2. Evaluation of equivalent annual dose received by a human, μSv/year [4].

Source

World average dose

Typical range

Space radiation

0.38

0.3 – 1

Gamma radiation of the Earth

0.48

0.3 – 0.6

Inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their radioactive products

1.3

0.2 – 10

Internal radiation

0.24

0.2 – 0.8

All natural sources

2.4

1-12.4

Pursuant to the above information, a human is radioactive himself, i.e. a human radiates. Therewith, radiation of the Earth and space radiation are taken into consideration for calculation of the equivalent dose received by a human.

Is human radiation continuous or cyclic? The following experiments were conducted in order to answer the question.

In the first experiment, observations were made over volunteers, namely, 15 men aged 28-34. The observations were made under controlled radiation-monitoring conditions. Each person was observed for 24 hours, readings were taken every 15 minutes.

As of the date of the experiment, the terrestrial magnetic field was quiet. Activity of the Sun was low. A more detailed description of the experiment can be found in the work “Supraphysiological Mechanism of Human Ageing”.

Technical characteristics of the equipment: RADEX RD 1706 radiation indicators. Certificate of compliance 060070010 issued by Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) “National Research Institute for Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements”. Dose rate readings range is 0.05 to 999 μSv/h, registered gamma radiations energy range is 0.1 to 1.25 MeV.

Figure 1. Human emission of gamma quanta according to the circadian (daily) cycle.

The horizontal axis shows the time.

The vertical axis shows the emission level (µSv per hour).

The blue line symbolizes the average background level in the room assumed as a straight line in order to avoid overloading the figure. In fact, the instrument readings oscillation range was ± 0.01 µSv/h.

The red line symbolizes the background level in the area.

The green line symbolizes the human emission threshold value.

The violet line means the emission of 40К and 14С assumed as a straight line. Complete calculation of the contribution of these radionuclides into human own radioactivity is given in the work “Supraphysiological Mechanism of Human Ageing”.


The second experiment performed a year afterwards, at the same geographical point and in the same period of calendar year, allowed for a statistically reliable verification of the first experiment and provided extended knowledge of human gamma radiation in a daily cycle.

Subject to the observations were eight people, namely, men aged 28 – 34. As of the time of measurement, Activity of the Sun was low, the terrestrial magnetic field was normal.

The performed experiment applied a triple monitoring principle, namely, radiation-monitoring, monitoring by count rate in gamma pulse per second, and spectrometric monitoring with spectrograms taken at a 20 to 40 minutes interval. Such time delta, which reduces purity of the experiment, is explained only by well-being of a person. The major task of the experiment was not to do harm to health of the people. Any of the participants could any time terminate the experiment. In terms of practice, depending on his individual capacities, a person can withstand the measurements for 20 minutes or for 40 minutes without any special efforts. Measurements were performed against human body, with end surface of the detector.

Equipment: Canberra InSpector 1000 – digital scintillation gamma-spectrometer, software Genie – 2000, stabilized scintillation gamma radiation detector unit with a NaI(TI) crystal. IPROS – 2.

Measured energy range was 50 keV – 3 MeV. Energy resolution in the peak of total absorption of gamma quanta with energy 661.6 keV was up to 8 %. External detection unit response to the gamma radiation of nuclide Cs – 137 – 1,300 ranged ± 46 pulse/seс/mSv/h.

Spectrum length – 256, 512, 1,024, 2,048 or 4,096 channels.

Integral nonlinearity – no more than 0.6 %.

Spectrometric tract capacity – no less than 5 х 104 pulse/sec.

Maximal input count rate – no less than 5 х 105 pulse/sec.

Verification certificate No. 3 – 22589/13311104 (Federal State Institution, Mendeleev Center for Standardization and Metrology).

Figure 2. Interactive event diagram (by gamma), excluding external background. Daily cycle.

The horizontal axis shows the time.

The vertical axis shows μSv/h.

The calibrated background of the room of 0.043 μSv/h was assumed a straight line in the figure. In fact, there were oscillations in the range of ± 0.01 μSv/h. Radioactivity indicators set at the indication threshold of 0.05 μSv/h were used for the background level monitoring. The threshold value was never exceeded in the course of observations.


The red color means the calibrated background of the room.

The green color shows values of human radiation monitoring.

Figure 4. Diagram of events at count rate in gamma pulse per second (count rate 500 pulse/sec). Daily cycle.


The lower axis shows the time.

The vertical axis shows the count rate (gamma pulse per second).

The blue axis shows the calibrated count rate of the room (282 gamma pulse per second).

The green curve shows human radiation data according to the instrument readings.

Figure 5. Human spectrogram in passive period of the day.


Figure 6. Human spectrogram in active period of the day.


Discussion of the peaks subsequent to results of the experiments will be a topic for further papers. This paper contains comparative analysis of radionuclide activity in active time of the day in relation to passive time of the day.

Active periods of human gamma radiation in a daily cycle.

Night:

0030
0050 increase in the activity of radionuclide 232Th, as compared to passive period of the day.

0055
0115 increase in the activity of radionuclides 235U, Ra + dau, as compared to passive period of the day.

0130
0150 increase in the activity of radionuclides Ra + dau, 40K, as compared to passive period of the day.

Day:

1115
1150 increase in the activity of radionuclides 40K, 235U, Ra + dau, 238U, as compared to passive period of the day.

Evening:

1940–2000 increase in the activity of radionuclides Ra + dau, 235U, Th + dau, as compared to passive period of the day.

2030
2050 increase in the activity of radionuclide Th + dau, as compared to passive period of the day.

2115
2135 increase in the activity of radionuclide 235U, as compared to passive period of the day.

2200
2230 increase in the activity of radionuclide 232Th, as compared to passive period of the day.

2230
2300 increase in the activity of radionuclide Th + dau, as compared to passive period of the day.

Average activity of radionuclides, by gamma radiation, as of the moment of passive and active periods of the daily cycle.

The analysis was conducted by the method of peak search by nuclide correlation (excluding external background) and by the method of minimal detector activity (MDA). Libraries used: “ANSI Gamma Guru. NLB”, “STD Lib”, “NLB”.

Table 3. Average activity of radionuclides by gamma radiation, as of the passive and active periods of daily cycle.

Nuclide

Passive period (μCi)

Active period (μCi)

Ra + dau

2.637 × 10-2

6.303 × 10-2

40K

5.988 × 10-1

1.048

235U

3.582 × 10-3

1.207 × 10-2

238U

5.241 × 10-1

7.103 × 10-1

212Bi

1.745 × 10-2

1.921 × 10-2

214Bi

7.917 × 10-3

1.611 × 10-2

212Pb

1.395 × 10-2

2.136 × 10-2

Pu

no

6.501 × 10-3

231Ра

no

3.212 × 10-2

22Na

no

3.348 × 10-3

Th + dau

no

1.136 × 10-2

231Th

no

4.500 × 10-1

232Th

no

14.000

As compared to passive period, in active period of the day human activity increases by several radionuclides: more than twice by Ra + dau, 1.7 times by 40K, 3.4 times by 235U, twofold increase in activity by 214Bi, and 14 times by 232Th.

The revealed radionuclides belong to natural and native (except 22Na, which is a cosmogenic radionuclide of natural origin) and possess low activity, lower than 1 μCi in 99.99% of the cases, thus enabling us to attribute them to the low health danger category. Increase in 232Th activity up to 14
μCi is not critical for human health either, the measured activity falling into the moderate danger category.

The performed experiments demonstrate that human own radioactivity is cyclic by nature. Gamma radiation peaks were registered five times a day. Within a day, energy is redistributed in a human and released by him in certain periods. The natural radionuclides distributed in the human body take active part in the process.

Periodicity of human gamma radiation is regulated by upper respiratory tracts and eyes of the human. This conclusion is based on changing conditions of the experiments. If measurements are taken in complete darkness,
unsynchronization of the gamma radiation peaks can be observed within a day in relation to a human who is watching the changing intensity of the day and night light flux.

Lungs, bronchi and trachea also take active part in periodicity of human gamma radiation. When measurements of a human were performed with filter-ventilator unit switched on to discharge radon and radon radiation products, we again observed unsynchronization of the human own radiation periodicity in relation to a person who was breathing normal atmospheric air.

The performed experiments provided one more important observation that scintillation detectors based on inorganic monocrystals cannot be applied for long-term study of a human. Health deterioration is recorded with all the participants on the second day of the experiment. Semiconductor detectors are more suitable for long-term observation of a human.

Radionuclides of the Earth origin permanently exist in a human body. Let’s consider the main of them, which are expressed within active periods of the daily cycle either as gamma radiation peaks, or as increase of own activity. 235U, 238U, 232Th belong to long-living natural radionuclides with the half-periods of 713 million years – 235U; 4.5 billion years – 238U; and 1.2 billion years – 40K, which belongs to long-living single radionuclides that do not form a family.

Half-life of a radionuclide is a criterion of the biological hazard posed by the radionuclide. If the half-life is long, as stated above, such radionuclide is of low hazard due to low radioactivity rate.

It is known from references that radionuclides form transportable (soluble) compounds and non-transportable (insoluble) compounds in the internal environment of a human body. The organ for primary depositing of transportable compounds, which are removed from a body with urine, is the human skeletal system in 90% of cases. The remaining non-transportable compounds deposit in the upper respiratory tracts in 99% of cases [5].

Natural thorium is an almost pure isotope of 232Th, with 100% content (by mass) in the natural mixture of isotopes. “The organ for primary depositing of transportable compounds of natural thorium is bone tissue, while non-transportable compounds mostly deposit in lungs [6]. Thorium metabolism is characterized as follows: “… human lungs contain 9 μg of thorium, mineral part of bones contains 30 μg of thorium. Thorium mostly deposits on the endosteal surfaces of the bone mineral, close to the blood-forming tissue, and links mostly to mucopolysaccharide as well as albumins and globulins. It is very slowly distributed in a compact bone during the bone resorption and formation” [7]. “Normally, 0.1 – 2 μg of thorium per day is removed with urine” [8].

Radionuclides accumulated by human bone tissue are bone-seeking radionuclides. “They are distributed in the bone mineral phase for a long time through chemical exchange. Such radionuclides are transferred from the blood steam onto available bone surfaces and then concentrated in surface bone cells, osteocytes, which participate in active mineralization of the bone tissue… Pu and thorium are surface bone-seekers accumulating on bone surface, which can be later on reabsorbed or trapped in the process of the bone growth or restructuring. Pu is also accumulated by bone marrow” [9].

Let’s consider uranium and its influence of human physiology. “Daily excretion of 20 to 50 μg of uranium with urine corresponds to the 30 mg of natural non-transportable uranium contained in the lungs” [10]. “Skeleton contains more than 90% of the uranium deposited in a human body” [11].

Uranium content in various organs and tissues of an adult (per 1 gram) [12].

Organs and tissues

Content

Lungs

8.17 x 10-8

Cerebellum

4.49 x 10-9

Heart

4.42 x 10-9

Pancreatic gland

7.5 x 10-9

Liver

6.6 x 10-8

Brain

2.5 x 10-6

Pituitary gland

1.36 x 10-6

Blood (1cm3)

4.1 x 10-10

40K also participates in physiological processes of a human by “conditioning the human blood radioactivity which varies within the range of (1.2 – 1.7) x 10-12 Ci/g [13]. “Reduction of potassium level is expressed by muscle weakness and cardiac rhythm disorder… Potassium is so closely connected with the heart that its blood content allows for high probability forecasts of the cardiac rhythm disorder. Generally speaking, large part of potassium participates in cardiac muscle rhythm. In 1906 German and American physiologist and biologist Loeb Jacques performed demonstrative experiments to show potassium ion effect on a muscle. The muscle was placed into light solution of potassium salts and achieved the muscle contraction by graduate increasing the solution concentration” [14].

The low-energy radiation of the natural radionuclides distributed in a human body play an important role in the physiological processes of the human body. Radioactive sources are redistributed, change their activity and emit energy on daily basis. If we compare a human to a flashlight, than we can say in simple words that the flashlight turns on and burns five times a day. If the flashlight burns, there must surely be a source of power. In a human, the source of power is mostly located in the bone tissue.

The investigations performed allow for the following conclusion. Long-living radionuclides are known to leave a body by means of excretion. Large part of natural radionuclides is known to be deposited in the human skeletal system. Therefore, excretion of natural radionuclides from a body is concurrent with the bone tissue decomposition.

Figure 7. Human gamma radiation in correlation with the age qualification [15].


The vertical axis shows the emission level (μSv/h).

The horizontal axis shows the age.

The blue column symbolizes the human radiation.

The red column symbolized the calibrated background level in the room.

It is clearly demonstrated that the older a person the lower his own gamma radiation power is.

Similar pattern is observed in the process of the bone tissue formation and decomposition.

Figure 8. General ratio (in %) between the bone formation marker and bone tissue disintegration marker depending on the age [16].

The lower axis shows the man’s age in years.

The vertical axis shows the percentage.

The green column shows the bone formation marker.

The red column shows the bone tissue disintegration marker.


Though bone tissue is quite stable in time, its mass and density reduce with time. “It is generally admitted that loss of the bone substance starts in people of both genders after the age of 30. Decrease of bone mass mineral density is 0.3–0.5% per year for men, and the value preserves throughout the life time. In women the process of bone mass density reduction is more complicated. Before the menopause, the process occurs at a similar rate with men and can reach 0.7–1.3% per year. However, after the menopause the bone mass reduction speeds up to 2–3% per year for the first 5–10 years, then after 10 years of menopause the bone mass loss rate decreases to the average of 1% per year” [17].

Finally, there is a source of power in the human and human own radiation system that is located in the skeletal system, and there are organs that regulate intervals or periodicity of human radiation. One of the regulators of the human radiation periodicity is upper respiratory tract. Upper respiratory tracts are known to be the organ of primary depositing of non-transportable (insoluble) natural radionuclides, but they are also the organs of maximum accumulation of the following elements.

Table 4. Accumulation limits of elements in human upper respiratory tracts, wet weight (mg/kg) [18].

No.

Element

Minimum accumulation

Maximum accumulation

1

Li

0.02 (lungs)

2

Al

43.1 (bronchi)

3

S

1436 (trachea)

4

Ca

1028 (trachea)

5

Sc

8 x 10-3 (bronchi)

6

Hg

2 x 10-4 (bronchi)

7

Co

0.1 (trachea)

8

Se

0.04 (lungs)

9

Rb

2.6 (trachea)

10

Sr

5.2 (trachea)

11

Y

0.01 (bronchi)

12

Sb

0.013 (lungs)

13

Ba

1.8 (trachea)

14

La

0.05 (lungs)

15

Ce

0.13 (lungs)

16

Pr

8 x 10-3 (lungs)

17

Nd

0.02 (bronchi)

18

Sm

3 x 10-3 (bronchi)

19

Eu

9 x 10-4 (trachea)

20

Gd

5 x 10-3 (bronchi)

21

Tb

6 x 10-4 (bronchi)

22

Dy

4 x 10-3 (bronchi)

23

Ho

5 x 10-4 (bronchi)

24

Tm

2 x 10-4 (bronchi)

25

Yb

1 x 10-3 (bronchi)

26

Lu

2 x 10-4 (bronchi)

27

Hf

4 x 10-3 (trachea)

28

W

0.09
(trachea)

29

Au

0.01 (bronchi)

30

Pb

0.2 (trachea)

31

Bi

0.01 (trachea)

32

U

5 x 10-3 (trachea)

It can be clearly seen from the above table that along with non-transportable uranium the upper respiratory tracts of a human contain a whole group of actinoids and several transuranian elements. We can thus suppose that we do not know everything about lungs’ function in a human physiology.

An assumption can be made based on the information and statistics of the investigations performed. At present moment, nuclear reactions that occur in human physiology can be analyzed, and conclusions can be made relying on the regularities, conceptuality and correlation to physiology. A certain reaction should not be considered with the accuracy admitted for the nuclear physics. The reason is behind the following two aspects.

It is a known that similar results can be achieved in an experiment under similar conditions. Technical conditions of the experiments conducted were similar, but people subject to the experiments were different. On the other hand, we know that there are no two identical persons. This can be the reason for the measurement error which is inadmissible in terms of the nuclear physics.

The second aspect is related to conditions of the experiments. The main condition for the experiments was safety of human life and health for the intravital recording of low-energy nuclear reactions in human body. On the other hand, in order to obtain a complete report on all the nuclear reactions in a human body with certain atomic interactions, we would have to provide fatal experimental conditions.

The fact of human gamma radiation with daily reproduced cycle is not a controversial fact and it is consistent with contemporary knowledge. “The studies performed and the observations allow for a promising conclusion that human ability to generate an electromagnetic wave helps him to streamline his biological structure, to maintain metabolic balance and at the same time to reduce temperature mode by “switching on” the internal cooling system. In other words, the ability to generate an electromagnetic wave is identical to self-organization, while self-organization in human physiology is identical to the temperature mode reduction” [19].

Let’s consider the human body temperature mode in details. Pursuant to the concept of supraphysiological mechanism of ageing, an average person does not face any health problems till the age of 21 – 25. Radionuclides are contained in the well-formed bone tissue, and bone formation marker prevails over the bone tissue resorption marker. The rate of human own radiation enables to maintain proper mass balance, and the body is well cooled with the help of its own electromagnetic radiation. Further on, by the age of 45 in average, there is a latent process of weakening in human physiology. After this age, the process of reduction of the bone tissue density and physical weight starts to dominate over the process of the bone tissue formation. Natural radionuclides start to be removed from the body as the bone tissue decomposes. The level of human own electromagnetic radiation goes down, and the ability to get cooled reduces concurrently. Body entropy increases. The heating is minor, by 0.1 – 0.3º С, and at the first sight such difference in the temperature mode cannot do harm to human physiology but for one thing. The exclusion is human brain. Human brain is contained in an enclosed space, i.e. in the skull. Cooling abilities are reduced considerably for an enclosed space.

Along with the brain, blood glands, namely, pituitary gland, hypothalamus and pineal body, are also contained in the skull. Pituitary gland mass is 0.5 grams, hypothalamus mass is about 5 grams, and plineal body mass is about 0.2 grams. For the organs located in the confined space, that have the mass of 0.2 to 5 grams, temperature increase by tenths of a degree is critical. Malfunction of pituitary gland, hypothalamus and pineal body occurs.

Let’s consider the responsibilities of the blood glands in a human body. Hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland regulate biosynthesis of the thyroid gland hormones, stimulate adrenal cortex, facilitate follicle maturation in the ovaries, regulate ovulation, stimulate synthesis of protein, formation of glucose, decomposition of fats, regulate growth of the organism, lactation and parental care instinct [20].

Hypothalamus responds to all the changes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, including temperature, composition, and content of hormones. Hypothalamus receives information from the centers which regulate the work respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Centers of thirst and hunger are located in hypothalamus. There are also the centers that regulate human emotions and behavior, in particular, defense, nutrition and sexual reactions. Sleep, awakening, temperature mode and vegetative processes that ensure surviving of a human are kept within. Hypothalamus regulates all functions of the body except for cardiac rhythm, blood pressure and spontaneous respiratory movements [21].

Pineal body regulates daily rhythm of a human; hormones generated by pineal body participate in the normalization of reproduction processes and period duration in women. Pineal body regulates the work of central nervous system. Pineal body failure is directly related to the sexual development dynamics and sexual disorders [22].

Thus, there occurs a misbalance in a human body that affects all the above listed aspects. Nevertheless, the regulatory function of the adaptation mechanisms is activated in a human. This function ensures removal of inorganic substances. The body does not reduce its lipoid tissue, for it is anyway cooled well due to the large surface area contacting with the ambient air. However, the inorganic elements, which are mostly depositing in the bone tissue, would not stand the increasing thermal load. The ability of a human body to get rid of inorganic compounds with ageing is well known and investigated.

For the recent 10 years, a lot of methods have been proposed to assess biological age of a human by certain criteria. In spite of the numerous hypotheses, there are only a few methods for the evaluation of human biological age recognized by the scientific and medical community.

A reliable and approved method for the human age assessment depending on blood values will be described below.

Effect of ageing on the clinical blood values. With ageing, along with hormonal misbalance and reduction of vitamins B6,
B12, С (except vitamin А); there is a reduction of inorganic compounds such as serum calcium, serum iron, serum phosphorous, serum zinc and serum selenium [23].

This way a human body adapts to the increased temperature mode subsequent to the reduction of its own electromagnetic radiation.

By now, we have been dealing with adult physiology. Let’s consider issues related to the childhood. How the reserve of inorganic substances is formed in a child, and when a child becomes a source of electromagnetic waves.

Besides the reserve formed in the intrauterine growth period during pregnancy, inorganic substances start to accumulate in a child during breast feeding. Breast feeding is known to be the way to provide a child with the nutrient materials required for child’s growth and development. According to references, breast milk has the following composition: dry substances – 11.9%, fat – 3.9 %, protein – 1.0 %, lactose – 6.8 %, mineral substances – 0.2 %.

More professionally oriented sources report on the following composition of breast milk.

Table 5. Breast (mother’s) milk composition [24].

No.

Components

Concentration

1

Total protein

7 – 20 g/l

2

Fat

13 – 82 g/l

3

Lactose

49 – 95 g/l

4

Arsenic

0.3 – 24.0 μg/l

5

Cadmium

0.7 – 4.6 μg/l

6

Chrome

0.4 – 5.1 μg/l

7

Cobalt

0.2 – 3.0 μg/l

8

Cuprum

197.0 – 751.0 μg/l

9

Nickel

1.5 – 39.0 μg/l

10

Selenium

10.0 – 62.0 μg/l

11

Lead

3.6 – 30.0 μg/l

12

Manganese

3.2 – 42.0 μg/l

13

Mercury

0.2 – 13.0 μg/l

According to the information from additional sources [25]. We should also add calcium – 32 mg, iron – 0.03 mg, magnesium – 3 mg, phosphorous – 14 mg, potassium – 51 mg, sodium – 17 mg, and zinc – 0.17 mg. 17 inorganic elements in total. Therefore, a child starts to build up his reserve of inorganic elements from the first hour of his life.

Naturally, the question arises, at what moment of his life a human becomes radioactive, at what moment of his life a human starts to be a source of the electromagnetic waves. In order to answer the question, studies were performed at the women center for pregnancy support and in a delivery room of the maternity home.

The task set for the observations over pregnant women was to find out at what gestational age the developing fetus becomes a source of the electromagnetic waves. The following results were obtained from the observations: no statistically reliable changes in the gamma radiation of a pregnant woman as compared to that of a non-pregnant woman were noticed. The subject gestational age was 12 weeks to 39 weeks. 39 weeks of gestational age mean a completely formed fetus, when there is a countdown to the delivery, but the fetus does not have a radioactivity of his own, and he is not a source of the electromagnetic waves. Even in her late gestational age, a pregnant woman does not differ any way from a non-pregnant woman, within the same monitored age and weigh limits. Radiometric survey was used for the monitoring of pregnant women.

Equipment: radiation dosimeter – radiometer, the measurement range of photon radiation dose intensity is 0.10 – 100 μSv/h; the photon energy range for the dose intensity measurement is 0.04 – 3.0 MeV; readings of the control source in gamma mode – (1.7 ± 0.1) μSv/h; verification certificate No. 41054.1К964 (Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Research Institute of Physicotechnical and Radiotechnical Measurements)

Further investigation was relocated to the delivery room, where spectrometric measurements were made as of the moment of delivery, i.e. as of the moment of a human coming into being. The equipment specification has been described earlier in the paper as a part of description of the periodicity of human radiation in a daily period.

The resulting statistical data were analyzed in the three control groups, namely, radiation-monitoring, monitoring by count rate in gamma pulse per second and spectrometric monitoring with four spectrograms per a delivery (mother before delivery, mother after delivery, child at the first breath, and child at the postnatal supervision). In addition, analysis of the radionuclide activity was performed in the 5 groups (mother before delivery, mother after delivery, child at the first breath, child at early postnatal supervision, child at later postnatal supervision).

The following data were additionally considered in the analysis: background level in the room, and interference from the obstetrical team.

The result obtained is as follows.

Figure 9. Interactive event diagram (by gamma), excluding external background.

Calibration values:

Green line is for the room background.

Measured values:

Blue color is for a mother.

Red color is for a child.

The vertical axis shows mSv/h.

The horizontal axis shows time.



Contractions.     First breath.     Supervision.

Figure 10. Diagram of events at count rate in gamma pulse per second (count rate 500 pulse/sec).

The vertical axis shows the count rate, gamma pulse per second.

The horizontal axis shows the events.

The blue color denotes a mother, the red color denotes a child, the green color denotes the background in the room. Events on the horizontal axis (from left to right): 1 – contractions, 2 – the first breath, – 3 – postnatal supervision.

Average activity of radionuclides by gamma radiation, as of the moment of delivery, the first breath and postnatal supervision. Check measurement – mother’s spectrogram as of the moment of contractions, 3 – 5 minutes before that child appears.

The analysis was conducted by the method of peak search by nuclide correlation (excluding external background) and by the method of minimal detector activity (MDA), activity of 214Pb was measured. Libraries used: “ANSI Gamma Guru. NLB”, “STD Lib”, “NLB”.

Table 6. Average activity of radionuclides by gamma radiation, as of the moment of delivery, the first breath and postnatal supervision [26].

Nuclide

Mother before delivery (µCi)

Mother after delivery (µCi)

The first breath (µCi)

Early postnatal supervision of the child (2 min. after delivery). (µCi)

Later postnatal supervision of the child (25 – 30 min. after delivery). (µCi)

235U

4.1 × 10-2

2.0 × 10-2

2.6 × 10-2

4.1 × 10-2

2.3 × 10-2

40K

4.3 × 10-1

1.1

1.2

1.9

3.6 × 10-1

238U

5.8 × 10-1

9.0 × 10-1

8.0 × 10-1

5.1 × 10-1

3.2 × 10-1

214Pb

1.8

1.8

2.0

1.9

1.8

214Bi

2.4 × 10-1

7.4 × 10-1

1.5 × 10-1

1.5 × 10-1

5.3 × 10-1

238U + dau

3.9 × 10-1

4.8 × 10-1

4.9 × 10-1

2.0 × 10-1

3.1 × 10-1

231Ра

no

no

1.4 × 10-1

no

no

7Be

no

no

1.0 × 10-1

5.3 × 10-2

no

22Na

no

no

9.4 × 10-4

no

no

Pu

no

no

4.1 × 10-2

4.2 × 10-2

no

22Na – activity is specified as non-stable.

The results obtained allow for several observations.

As of the moment of the first breath of a child, recorded and measured activity of radionuclides is observed, which is not peculiar for a mother during contractions.

The children who have no transuranian elements according to spectrogram analysis as of the moment of the first breath are subject to respiratory failure during early postnatal supervision and intensive care. Prognostic on Apgar scale reduces in the absence of the following radionuclides: 231Ра, 7Be, Pu at the first breath.

Apgar score, ranging 0 to 10, is a method used for the initial evaluation of child’s health evaluation. Score less than 3 means that the child’s health condition is critical. Score 7 means normal state of health.

Analysis of the four spectrograms per a delivery (mother before delivery, mother after delivery, child at the first breath, and child at the postnatal supervision) allows for a conclusion that there is no energy redistribution or energy transfer from mother to child.

The first breath spectrograms show external, single and simultaneous exposure of the child throughout the energy spectrum with concurrent activation of radionuclides and emergence of the new ones, which are not peculiar to mother. The entire process occurs in the time interval of 60 seconds to 300 seconds.

The fact of emergence of new natural and cosmogenic radionuclides as of the moment of the first breath and disappearance of the same within 5 to 20 minutes doubt accuracy of the experiment. On the other hand, the steadiness of emergence of new natural and cosmogenic radionuclides and quick disappearance of the same suggest that we are facing an unexplored phenomenon.

The amount of statistical data allows to make a conclusion based on the binary algorithm, namely, in the process of delivery, as of the moment of the first breath of a child, emergence of electromagnetic wave is recorded in the gamma quantum spectrum. Supposedly, the source of the wave is a child [27].

Let’s consider the issue related to the emergence of new natural radionuclides, not peculiar to mother, at the moment of the first breath of a child. These are 231Ра, 7Be, Pu. Protoactinium (231Ра) emerges as a result of decomposition of 235U peculiar to a human. The half-life of protoactinium is 324,000 years, which means that it can be evaluated as a low-danger radionuclide for a human. It is very little known about presence and migration of protoactinium in the biosphere. Like protoactinium, plutonium (Pu) belongs to the group of elements in the actinoid family. Beryllium-7 (7Be) belongs to the group of cosmogenic radionuclides and contributes significantly into radioactivity of the ground air. 7Be content in the air is related to the solar activity, has seasonal trend and latitudinal dependency [28]. Maximum of the 7Be production occurs at the latitude of 15 – 17 kilometers [29]. This observation of the cosmogenic radionuclide points at its atypical behavior. It attends each newly born child having “descended” from the height of 15 – 17 kilometers, and disappears in five minutes. Should we perform the experiment on 7Be recording on the ground and install a detector in the air inlet, we would have to pump hundred thousands cubic meters of the atmospheric air before we could measure activity of the radionuclide.

Analysis of the activity and emergence of new radionuclides in a child at the moment of his first breath provides extensive knowledge of the effect on natural radionuclides on the human physiology. Natural radionuclides not only accumulate in the upper respiratory tracts of an adult, where they ensure periodicity of human gamma radiation, but also perform regulatory function in the respiratory center of a human and let the human breath. Since breathing provides for the normal course of metabolism (interchange of matter and energy) and maintains the stability of internal medium (homeostasis), natural radionuclides participate in the processes.

Further observation will be about an uninvestigated phenomenon registered in the delivery room as of the moment of delivery.

The suggestion that at the moment of delivery mother transfers part of her energy to her child proved to be false. A child is influenced by the external electromagnetic field, which acts once and concurrently, throughout the energetic spectrum. The sources do not offer a scientifically verified description of the nature of the external electromagnetic field or statistically reliable data in interaction with the human physiology. That is why we suggest the wording “an uninvestigated phenomenon”. The process of influence consists of the activation of radionuclides and emergence of radionuclides that were not pertinent to a woman in labor and surroundings of the woman in labor. The entire process takes 60 to 300 seconds, whereupon the recorded radionuclides disappear in the early postnatal supervision.

It is known from the investigations that a completely formed fetus located in mother’s body does not express its gamma activity, even 5 – 10 minutes before the delivery. Than the delivery process takes place. There are some individual features pertinent to delivery without pathology, especially, when a child makes the intake of breath in his life. In average (according to the elaborated conditions of the observation) the processes is as follows: a child comes through the maternal passages, then the child stays in a new-born tray before the cord is cut, then silence and awaiting for 20 – 120 seconds come, and the first breath and cry.

In the period of silence, for 20 – 120 seconds, a spectrometer registers and measures activity of radionuclides. If the spectrometer does not register activity of radionuclides of the actinoid family, the child health forecast worsens; if transuranium radionuclides are not registered, there comes a respiratory standstill after the first breath, and intensive care is required. If the registration is positive, the child cries and breathes. Analysis of the spectrograms allows for the conclusion that energy is transferred to a child with the help of a nuclear reaction. The impact takes place once and concurrently, throughout the energetic spectrum from 0 to 2,700 keV. A spectrogram of a child at the first breath differs from his mother’s spectrogram in a less number of events only; during the later postnatal supervision child’s spectrogram is similar to spectrogram of an adult.

It can be supposed that if a spectrometer does not record a nuclear reaction in child’s body or, in other words, if the uninvestigated phenomenon does not enter the low-energy nuclear interaction with child’s body, then what is called a phenomenon of life will not occur in the normally formed child’s body.

Pursuant to the observations, we can suggest primary descriptive features of the uninvestigated phenomenon.

It is friendly to a human, for it gives away a part of its energy which accompanies the person throughout his life.

If we consider that every living human has a part of energy given away by the uninvestigated phenomenon, the power of such phenomenon is enormous.

Due to the great power of the uninvestigated phenomenon and the possibility, which is not excluded, that the phenomenon can participate in the germ of life of other forms, families and species, the uninvestigated phenomenon can supposedly rest outside the boundaries of laws known to the humankind.

It is known that energy cannot come out of nowhere and disappear traceless, for the energy conservation law must be preserved. In order that the uninvestigated phenomenon stays consistent with the laws presently known, we should introduce a name for it. It is proposed to call the uninvestigated phenomenon Highly Organized Energy Medium. The denomination was proposed in the process of discussion by Russian physicist Shikalov V.F., Doctor of Engineering.

Interaction between a child and the Highly Organized Energy Medium, which is characterized by energy transfer and exchange in the form of radiation, is consistent with the laws of physics. Einstein A. in his work “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation” laid down a hypothesis concerning exchange of energy by means of radiation [30]. One of the founders the quantum mechanics Heisenberg W. wrote the following: “Elementary particles are all, so to say, built of the same substance, namely, of energy, if you prefer. … Basically, they do not consist of matter, but they are the only possible forms of the matter. Energy becomes the matter since it is manifested in the form of elementary particles, since it is found in such a form [31].

We should further make an assumption in the human nuclear physiology.

Gamma radiation is of the same electromagnetic nature as the light. The light can be considered as an electromagnetic wave with constant propagation speed in the vacuum, or as a flow of photons, which are particles possessing energy, impulse. Therefore, we can hereinafter apply the identified wordings, namely, human gamma radiation, human photon radiation, and human light flux.

Pursuant to the above assumption, we will cite the opinion of Bohr N.: “From the physical point of view, the light can be determined as transmission of energy to the distance between material bodies … Indeed, important specific features of living creatures shall be sought in their peculiar organization, where the properties capable of being analyzed on the basis of common mechanics are intervened with typically atomic properties in a way that can never be found in the inorganic matter … Hence, the initial question is whether we should add to our analysis of the natural phenomena any other yet missing fundamental ideas, before we could reach the understanding of life based on a physical experiment [32].

The low-energy nuclear reactions registered in human physiology are also consistent with the laws of physics. “Our world of chemistry and biology can exist only in the environment where exchange of energy between particles is not too intensive, and where there is enough energy for producing certain noncatastrophic changes in the molecular structure” [33].

Although gamma quanta were discovered in 1900, and plenty of research has been conducted to study their properties, taxonomy has not been developed for the interaction between the low-energy gamma radiation and physiology and, therefore a correlation between human physiology and gamma radiation has not been available.

“Einstein was very sorry about unpredictability of the quantum mechanics, because he realized that “God doesn’t play dice”. However, the results obtained in Hawking’s article point out that “God does play dice. He sometimes throws the dice to where we can’t see them” [34].

This fact of interaction between the Highly Organized Energetic Medium and human physiology has been long concealed from researchers. It was, indeed, invisible.

As a matter of fact information about a nuclear reaction is obtained in the form of a trace in measurement instrumentation, which is presented in reports as a radiation peak by certain radionuclide.

The studies performed concerned such periods of human life as the first breathing-in, circadiac cycle, changing energy emission with ageing, and the last breathing-in, as per the spectrogram given below. Due to the limited amount of statistical data, the spectrograms given below should not be subject to scientific assessment.

Figure 11. Spectrogram of life of an average human at normal air fluctuation.


Figure 12. Spectrogram of the last breathing-in at normal air fluctuation.


If compared, the two above spectrograms are different. The life spectrogram uses almost the whole energy spectrum with various number of events throughout the scale. The last breath spectrogram demonstrates smoothing the number of events throughout the energy spectrum. The observation allows for a suggestion that energy leaves a person.

Pursuant to the previously laid down assumption, that gamma radiation and photon light and identical notions, we can use the wording “intensity of glow”. A human acquires the possibility to “glow” in the gamma radiation spectrum while in a maternity home, at the moment of his first breath, and continues to “glow” five times a day in the daily reproduced cycle. Intensity of “glow” in the human radiation gamma spectrum decreases with age. Each subsequent year reduces intensity of “glow” in the human radiation gamma spectrum. A person fades away.

                 TIME




Initial figure was taken for further processing at http://v-garmonii-s-soboi.ru

As of the moment of the first breath of a human, there is a low-energy nuclear reaction of a child with the Highly Organized Energy Medium, which results in the emergence in the child of what is called a phenomenon of life, preceded by gamma radiation of the child, or photon radiation, or a light flux. This observation allows for a suggestion that emitting light by a human is not only a consequence of his living, but also the reason for emergence of his life. This observation allows for a suggestion that there is a supraphysiological mechanism over human biology and physiology, which is manifested as the Highly Organized Energy Medium.

When speaking about energy and calculating energy within the physic-mathematical model, we should take into account that the term “energy” is relatively young. In its contemporary meaning, the term “energy” was introduced in 1808 by English physicist Young T. instead of previously used notion “living force”. The notion of “living force” was introduced by German physicist Leibnitz G.W. Leibnitz also discovered the law of conservation of living forces that became the first wording of the energy conservation law, and ventured a guess about transformation of some types of energy into others.

Should a physicist of the year 1808 describe the experiments and observations mentioned in the paper concerning the impact of gamma radiation on the human physiology, he would put it like this: “As a result of the impact on a person from the Highly Organized Energy Medium, the living force emerged in the person which is expressed in the person five times a day. The expression of the living force reduces each year, and at the moment of the last breath the living force leaves the person”.

Conclusion

Natural radionuclides distributed in a human body have direct participation in the human physiology. During a day, there are five active periods of human own gamma radiation, with energy release. The main radionuclides participating in the process are 232Th (thorium), 40K (potassium), 235U (uranium), Ra+dau (radium). Periodicity of the human gamma radiation is determined by the upper respiratory tracts and eyes of a human. Natural radionuclides perform regulatory function in human respiratory enter and ensure the physical ability of breathing.

Registered and measured activity of 238U (uranium), 231Ра (protoactinium), Pu (plutonium) and cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be (beryllium) as of the moment of delivery of a child is a characteristic forecast of the fact that a phenomenon of life will occur in the child (heartbeating, breathing etc.) Activity of radionuclides in a child as of the moment of delivery is a prognostic for initial assessment of the child’s health condition.

In the human physiology, the electromagnetic wave originating from a human performs the function of cooling all the body systems and organs, and thus provides for the normal course of metabolism and maintenance of homeostasis.

Power of the human own gamma radiation serves for the characteristic valuation of human biological age and condition of the bone tissue.

With the help of his own electromagnetic radiation a person interacts with the surrounding world, and such interaction is characterized by human gamma radiation. On the other hand, gamma radiation is one of the means of conveying information. Contemporary studies confirm that photons transport information [35].

Thus, a human interacts with the surrounding world, in a consistent and natural manner, through the exchange of energy and information, implementing the principle of an open quantum biological system.

The authors are grateful for the consulting and professional notes to the paper to head of laboratory of FSUE National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Shikalov V.F., Doctor of Engineering.


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